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1587 - 2023

History of Filipino Americans



The history of Filipino Americans begins indirectly, when Filipino slaves and indentured servants first visited what is now the United States aboard Novohispanic ships sailing to and from modern Mexico and Asia, loaded with cargo and prisoners.[1] [2 ]The first ship carrying these slaves docked around Morro Bay in Alta California territory under the control of Mexico City in the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then Madrid. Until the 19th century the Philippines continued to be geographically isolated but maintained regular communication across the Pacific Ocean via the Manila galleon. A few Filipino seamen and indentured servants managed to escape the Spanish Galleons in the 1700s and settled on the coast or in Louisiana, another territory. One single Filipino living in the United States fought in the Battle of New Orleans.[3] In the final years of the 19th century, the United States went to war with Spain, ultimately annexing the Philippine Islands from Spain. Due to this, the History of the Philippines now includes domination from the United States, beginning with the three-year-long Philippine–American War (1899-1902), which resulted in the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, and the attempted Americanization of the Philippines.


In the 20th century, many Filipinos enlisted as sailors of the United States Navy, pensionados, and laborers. During the Great Depression, Filipino Americans became targets of race-based violence, including race riots such as the one in Watsonville. The Philippine Independence Act was passed in 1934, redefining Filipinos as aliens for immigration; this encouraged Filipinos to return to the Philippines and established the Commonwealth of the Philippines. During World War II, the Philippines were occupied leading to resistance, the formation of segregated Filipino regiments, and the liberation of the islands.


After World War II, the Philippines gained independence in 1946. Benefits for most Filipino veterans were rescinded with the Rescission Act of 1946. Filipinos, primarily war brides, immigrated to the United States; further immigration was set to 100 persons a year due to the Luce–Celler Act of 1946, this though did not limit the number of Filipinos able to enlist into the United States Navy. In 1965, Filipino agricultural laborers, including Larry Itliong and Philip Vera Cruz, began the Delano grape strike. That same year the 100-person per year quota of Filipino immigrants was lifted, which began the current immigration wave; many of these immigrants were nurses. Filipino Americans began to become better integrated into American society, achieving many firsts. In 1992, the enlistment of Filipinos in the Philippines into the United States ended. By the early 21st century, Filipino American History Month was recognized.

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First Filipinos in North America
Manila Galleon Trade ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1556 Jan 1 - 1813

First Filipinos in North America

Morro Bay, CA, USA

Migration patterns of immigration of Filipinos to the United States have been recognized as occurring in four significant waves. The first wave was a small wave during the period when the Philippines was under the jurisdiction of the Spanish East Indies, a territory ruled by Mexico City in New Spain; Filipinos, via the Manila galleons, would sometimes stay in North America as slaves or workers.


Between roughly 1556 and 1813, Spain engaged in the Galleon Trade between Manila and Acapulco. The galleons were built in the shipyards of Cavite, outside Manila, by Filipino craftsmen. The trade was funded by the Spanish Crown, with majority of the products coming from Chinese traders, while the ships were manned by Filipino sailors and slaves, while "supervised" by Mexico City officials. During this time, Spain recruited Mexicans to serve as soldiers in Manila. They also took Filipinos to serve as slaves and workers in Mexico. Once sent to the Americas, Filipino soldiers were frequently not returned home.[4]


First Filipinos ("Luzonians") to set foot in North America arrive in Morro Bay (San Luis Obispo), California. These people were slaves on the galleon ship Nuestra Senora de Esperanza, under the command of Spanish Captain Pedro de Unamuno; These Filipinos were the first known Asians to set foot in California, post-European colonization.

First Settlement
The settlement as it appeared in Harper's Weekly, 1883. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1763 Jan 1

First Settlement

Saint Malo, Louisiana, USA

The first permanent settlement of Filipinos settlements in the United States is at the independent community of Saint Malo, Louisiana.[5] [6]

Manilamen
Battle of New Orleans ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1815 Jan 8

Manilamen

Louisiana, USA

During the War of 1812, Filipinos residing in Louisiana, referred to as "Manilamen" residing near the city of New Orleans, including the Manila Village, were among the "Baratarians", a group of men who fought with Jean Lafitte and Andrew Jackson in the Battle of New Orleans during the War of 1812. The battle was fought after the Treaty of Ghent was signed.[7]

Filipinos in the American Civil War
American Civil War. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1861 Jan 1 - 1863

Filipinos in the American Civil War

United States

Approximately 100 Filipinos and Chinese enlist during the American Civil War into the Union Army and Navy, as well as serving, in smaller numbers, in the armed forces of the Confederate States of America.[8]

Pensionado Act
The first 100 pensionados at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1903 Aug 26

Pensionado Act

United States

The Pensionado Act is Act Number 854 of the Philippine Commission, which passed on 26 August 1903. Passed by the United States Congress, it established a scholarship program for Filipinos to attend school in the United States. The program has roots in pacification efforts following the Philippine–American War. It hoped to prepare the Philippines for self-governance and present a positive image of Filipinos to the rest of the United States. Students of this scholarship program were known as pensionados.


From the initial 100 students, the program provided education in the United States to around 500 students. They would go on to be influential members of the Philippine society, with many of the alumni of the program going on to work for the government in the Philippine Islands. Due to their success, other immigrants from the Philippines followed to be educated in the United States, in excess of 14,000. Many of these non-pensioned students ended up permanently residing in the United States. In 1943, the program ended. It was the largest American scholarship program until the Fulbright Program was established in 1948.


During World War II, Japan initiated a similar program during its occupation of the Philippines, named nampo tokubetsu ryugakusei. Following the War, and Philippine independence, Filipino students continued to come to the United States utilizing government scholarships.

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1906 Jan 1 - 1946

Second Wave of Filipino Immigration

United States

The second wave was during the period when the Philippines were a territory of the United States; as U.S. Nationals, Filipinos were unrestricted from immigrating to the US by the Immigration Act of 1917 that restricted other Asians.[41] This wave of immigration has been referred to as the manong generation.[42] Filipinos of this wave came for different reasons, but the majority were laborers, predominantly Ilocano and Visayans.[21] This wave of immigration was distinct from other Asian Americans, due to American influences, and education, in the Philippines; therefore they did not see themselves as aliens when they immigrated to the United States.[43] By 1920, the Filipino population in the mainland U.S. rose from nearly 400 to over 5,600. Then in 1930, the Filipino-American population exceeded 45,000, including over 30,000 in California and 3,400 in Washington.[40]

Anti-Filipino riots
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1930 Jan 19 - Jan 23

Anti-Filipino riots

Watsonville, California, USA

Filipino laborers' resilience in harsh working conditions made them favorite recruits among farm operators. In California's Santa Clara and San Joaquin Valleys, Filipinos were often assigned to the backbreaking work of cultivating and harvesting asparagus, celery, and lettuce. Due to gender bias in immigration policy and hiring practices, of the 30,000 Filipino laborers following the cycle of seasonal farm work, only 1 in 14 were women.[15] Unable to meet Filipino women, Filipino farm workers sought the companionship of women outside their own ethnic community, which further aggravated mounting racial discord.[16]


In the next few years, white men decrying the takeover of jobs and white women by Filipinos resorted to vigilantism to deal with the "third Asiatic invasion." Filipino laborers frequenting pool halls or attending street fairs in Stockton, Dinuba, Exeter, and Fresno risked being attacked by nativists threatened by the swelling labor pool as well as the Filipino's presumed predatory sexual nature.[17]


The Watsonville riots was a period of racial violence that took place in Watsonville, California, from January 19 to 23, 1930. Involving violent assaults on Filipino American farm workers by local residents opposed to immigration, the riots highlighted the racial and socioeconomic tensions in California's agricultural communities.[14] The violence spread to Stockton, San Francisco, San Jose, and other cities.


The five days of the Watsonville riots had a profound impact on California's attitude toward imported Asian labor. California's legislature explicitly outlawed Filipino-white intermarriage following 1933's Roldan v. Los Angeles County decision. By 1934, the federal Tydings–McDuffie Act restricted Filipino immigration to fifty people per year. As a result, Filipino immigration plummeted, and while they remained a significant part of the labor in the fields, they began to be replaced by Mexicans.[18]

Prohibition of Interracial marriages
Caliva is seen with his wife, Lucy, in a key photograph. Just the sight of a Filipino man and a white woman was enough to justify rage and anger among white men at the time. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1933 Jan 1

Prohibition of Interracial marriages

United States

After the Supreme Court of California found in Roldan v. Los Angeles County that existing laws against marriage between white persons and "Mongoloids" did not bar a Filipino man from marrying a white woman,[19] California's anti-miscegenation law, Civil Code Section 60 was amended to prohibit marriages between white persons and members of the "Malay race" (e.g. Filipinos).[20] The laws preventing interracial marriage with Filipinos continued until 1948 in California; this extended nationally in 1967 when anti-miscegenation laws were struck down by the United States Supreme Court by Loving v. Virginia.

Philippine Independence Act
Representatives from the Philippine Independence Mission in 1924 (left to right): Isauro Gabaldón, Sergio Osmena, Manuel L. Quezon, Claro M. Recto, Pedro Guevara, and Dean Jorge Bocobo ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1934 Mar 24

Philippine Independence Act

United States

The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (Pub. L. 73–127, 48 Stat. 456, enacted March 24, 1934), is an Act of Congress that established the process for the Philippines, then an American territory, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period. Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines. It also established limitations on Filipino immigration to the United States.


The act reclassified all Filipinos, including those who were living in the United States, as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America. A quota of 50 immigrants per year was established. Before this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals, but not United States citizens, and while they were allowed to migrate relatively freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US, unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US.[21]

Land Ownership for Filipinos
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1941 Jan 1

Land Ownership for Filipinos

Supreme Court of the United St

Washington Supreme Court rules unconstitutional the Anti-Alien Land Law of 1937 which banned Filipino Americans from owning land.[22 [23]]

1st Filipino Infantry Regiment
Formation of the Regiment during the visit of Commonwealth Vice President Osmeña ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1942 Mar 4 - 1946 Apr 10

1st Filipino Infantry Regiment

San Luis Obispo, CA, USA

The 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment was a segregated United States Army infantry regiment made up of Filipino Americans from the continental United States and a few veterans of the Battle of the Philippines that saw combat during World War II. It was formed and activated at Camp San Luis Obispo, California, under the auspices of the California National Guard. Originally created as a battalion, it was declared a regiment on 13 July 1942. Deployed initially to New Guinea in 1944, it became a source of manpower for special forces and units that would serve in occupied territories. In 1945, it deployed to the Philippines, where it first saw combat as a unit. After major combat operations, it remained in the Philippines until it returned to California and was deactivated in 1946 at Camp Stoneman.

Supreme Court decision allowing Filipinos to own property
Filipino Americans in Hollywood nightlife in the 1940s. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1945 Jan 1

Supreme Court decision allowing Filipinos to own property

Supreme Court of the United St

Celestino Alfafara is celebrated in Filipino American history lore as the man who won “the California Supreme Court decision allowing aliens the right to own real property.” In the most recent conference of the Filipino American National Historical Society in Albuquerque, New Mexico in June 2012, “The Legacy of Celestino T. Alfafara” was the focus of the plenary on “Fighting Anti-Alien Property Laws”. Before Alfafara, the only way Filipinos could own property in California was if they collectively purchased it in the name of their fraternal organizations like the Caballeros de Dimasalang the Gran Oriente Filipino and the Legionarios del Trabajadores.

Filipino's war veterans benefits rescinded
Jose Calugas served in the Philippine Scouts of the United States Army during World War II. He received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the intense Battle of Bataan. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1946 Jan 1

Filipino's war veterans benefits rescinded

Washington D.C., DC, USA

The Rescission Act of 1946 is a law of the United States reducing (rescinding) the amounts of certain funds already designated for specific government programs, much of it for the U.S. military, after World War II concluded and as American military and public works spending diminished. The effect was to retroactively annul benefits to Filipino troops for their military service under the auspices of the United States while the Philippines was a U.S. unincorporated territory and Filipinos were U.S. nationals.

Third Wave of Filipino Immigration
“Bridge generation” of Filipino Americans. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1946 Jan 1 - 1965

Third Wave of Filipino Immigration

United States

The third wave of immigration followed the events of World War II.[37] Filipinos who had served in World War II were given the option of becoming U.S. citizens, and many took the opportunity,[38] over 10,000 according to Barkan.[39] Filipina war brides were allowed to immigrate to the United States due to the War Brides Act and Fiancée Act, with approximately 16,000 Filipinas entering the United States in the years following the war.[37] This immigration was not limited to Filipinas and children; between 1946 and 1950, one Filipino groom was granted immigration under the War Brides Act. A source of immigration was opened up with the Luce–Celler Act of 1946, that gave the Philippines a quota of 100 persons a year; yet records show that 32,201 Filipinos immigrated between 1953 and 1965. This wave ended in 1965.

Filipino Naturalization Act
U.S. President Harry Truman signing into law the Luce–Celler Act in 1946. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1946 Jul 2

Filipino Naturalization Act

Washington D.C., DC, USA

The Luce–Celler Act of 1946 is an Act of the United States Congress which provided a quota of 100 Filipinos[24] and 100 Indians from Asia to immigrate to the United States per year,[25] which for the first time allowed these people to naturalize as American citizens.[26] [27 ]Upon becoming citizens, these new Americans could own property under their names and even petition for their immediate family members from abroad.[28]


The Act was proposed by Republican Clare Boothe Luce and Democrat Emanuel Celler in 1943 and signed into law by U.S. President Harry S. Truman on July 2, 1946, two days before the Philippines became independent with the signing of the Treaty of Manila on July 4, 1946. Because of the imminent independence of the Philippines, Filipinos would have been barred from immigrating without the Act.[29]

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1965 May 3

Delano Grape Strike

Delano, California, USA

Preceding the Delano grape strike was another grape strike organized by Filipino farm workers that occurred in Coachella Valley, California on May 3, 1965. Because the majority of strikers were over 50 years old and did not have families of their own due to anti-miscegenation laws, they were willing to risk what little they had to fight for higher wages. The strike succeeded in granting farm workers a 40-cent-per-hour raise, which resulted in a wage equivalent to the $1.40-per-hour wage that the recently outlawed braceros were paid After the strike in Coachella, farm workers followed the grape-picking season and moved north to Delano The Filipino farm workers who came up from Coachella were led by Larry Itliong, Philip Vera Cruz, Benjamin Gines, and Elasco under the AWOC. Upon arriving in Delano, the farm workers were told by growers that instead of being paid the $1.40-per-hour wage they received in Coachella, they would be paid $1.20-per-hour, which was below the federal minimum wage Despite attempts at negotiation, growers were not willing to raise wages since workers were easily replaceable This pushed Itliong, who was the leader of the AWOC, to organize Filipino farm workers and pressure growers into granting them higher wages and better working conditions On September 7, 1965, Itliong and Filipino farm workers gathered inside Filipino Community Hall, and the AWOC unanimously voted to go on strike the next morning.


The Delano grape strike was a labor strike organized by the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a predominantly Filipino and AFL-CIO-sponsored labor organization, against table grape growers in Delano, California to fight against the exploitation of farm workersThe strike began on September 8, 1965, and one week later, the predominantly Mexican National Farmworkers Association (NFWA) joined the cause. In August 1966, the AWOC and the NFWA merged to create the United Farm Workers (UFW) Organizing Committee.


The strike lasted for five years and was characterized by its grassroots efforts—consumer boycotts, marches, community organizing and nonviolent resistance—which gained the movement national attention. On July 1970, the strike resulted in a victory for farm workers, due largely to a consumer boycott of non-union grapes, when a collective bargaining agreement was reached with major table grape growers, affecting more than 10,000 farm workers.


The Delano grape strike is most notable for the effective implementation and adaptation of boycotts, the unprecedented partnership between Filipino and Mexican farm workers to unionize farm labor, and the resulting creation of the UFW labor union, all of which revolutionized the farm labor movement in the United States.

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1965 Dec 1

Fourth Wave of Filipino Immigration

United States

The fourth and present wave of Filipino immigration began in 1965 with the passing of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. It ended national quotas, and provided an unlimited number of visas for family reunification. By the 1970s and 1980s the immigration of Filipina wives of service members reached annual rates of five to eight thousand.[33] The Philippines became the largest source of legal immigration to the United States from Asia. Many Filipinas of this new wave of migration have migrated here as professionals due to a shortage in qualified nurses;[34] from 1966 until 1991, at least 35,000 Filipino nurses immigrated to the United States.[36] As of 2005, 55% of foreign-trained registered nurses taking the qualifying exam administered by the Commission on Graduates of Foreign Nursing Schools (CGFNS) were educated in the Philippines.[35] Although Filipinos made up 24 percent of foreign physicians entering the U.S. in 1970, Filipino physicians experienced widespread underemployment in the 1970s due to the requirement of passing the ECFMG exam to practice in the U.S.

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1992 Oct 1

Filipino American History Month

United States

Filipino American History Month (FAHM) is celebrated in the United States during the month of October. In 1991, Filipino American National Historical Society (FANHS) board of trustees proposed the first annual Filipino American History Month to commence in October 1992.[30]


October was chosen to commemorate the visitation of the first Filipinos who landed as slaves, prisoners, and crew aboard Novohispanic ships in what is now Morro Bay, California on October 18, 1587.[31] It is also the birth month of Filipino American labor leader Larry Itliong.[32]


In California and Hawaii, where many Filipino Americans reside, Filipino American History Month is celebrated annually. Many Filipino American organizations in these states often initiate their own independent celebrations.


In 2009, California State Senator Leland Yee introduced a resolution, which was passed, that recognizes October as Filipino American History Month. It passed the California State Assembly and was submitted to the California Secretary of State.

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2002 Jul 31

Historic Filipinotown, Los Angeles

Historic Filipinotown, Los Ang

On July 31, 2002, the City of Los Angeles designated Historic Filipinotown with the following boundaries: on the east by Glendale Boulevard, on the north by the 101 Freeway, on the west by Hoover Street, and on the south by Beverly Boulevard. The area, located in Council District 13, had commonly been referred to as the "Temple-Beverly Corridor". Both the Department of Public Works and the Department of Transportation were instructed in install signage to identify "Historic Filipinotown". Neighborhood signage was installed at the intersection of Temple Street and Hoover Street and Beverly Boulevard and Belmont Avenue. In 2006, Historic Filipinotown signage was installed along the 101 Freeway at the Alvarado Street exit.

2016 Jan 1

Epilogue

United States

In 2016, 50,609 Filipinos obtained their lawful permanent residency, according to the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Of those Filipinos receiving their lawful permanent residency status in 2016, 66% were new arrivals, while 34% were immigrants who adjusted their status within the U.S. In 2016, data collected from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security found that the categories of admission for Filipino immigrants were composed mainly of immediate relatives, that is 57% of admissions. This makes the admission of immediate relatives for Filipinos higher than the overall average lawful permanent resident immigrants, which is composed of only 47.9%. Following immediate relative admission, family sponsored and employment-based admission make up the next highest means of entry for Philippine immigration, with 28% and 14% respectively. Like immediate relative admission, both of these categories are higher than that of the overall U.S. lawful permanent resident immigrants. Diversity, refugees and asylum, and other categories of admission make up less than one percent of Filipino immigrants granted lawful permanent resident status in 2016.

Characters



Bobby Balcena

Bobby Balcena

First Asian American to play Major League baseball

Alfred Laureta

Alfred Laureta

First Filipino American Federal Judge

Larry Itliong

Larry Itliong

Filipino American labor organizer

Vicki Draves

Vicki Draves

Filipino American Olympic Gold winner

Gene Viernes

Gene Viernes

Filipino American labor activist

Silme Domingo

Silme Domingo

Filipino American labor activist

Ben Cayetano

Ben Cayetano

First Filipino American State Governor

Philip Vera Cruz

Philip Vera Cruz

Filipino American labor leader

Eduardo Malapit

Eduardo Malapit

First Filipino American mayor in the United States

Footnotes



  1. "The End of Chino Slavery".Asian Slaves in Colonial Mexico. Cambridge Latin American Studies. Cambridge University Press. 2014. pp.212-246.
  2. Bonus, Rick (2000).Locating Filipino Americans: Ethnicity and the Cultural Politics of Space. Temple University Press. p.191.ISBN978-1-56639-779-7. Archived from the original on January 26, 2021. Retrieved May 19,2017.
  3. "The Unsung Story of Asian American Veterans in the U.S."November 12, 2021.
  4. Peterson, Andrew (Spring 2011)."What Really Made the World go Around?: Indio Contributions to the Acapulco-Manila Galleon Trade"(PDF).Explorations.11(1): 3-18.Archived(PDF) from the original on April 24, 2018.
  5. Welch, Michael Patrick (October 27, 2014)."NOLA Filipino History Stretches for Centuries". New Orleans Me. The Arts Council of New Orleans. Archived from the original on September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 18,2018.
  6. Loni Ding (2001)."Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS AND SETTLERS".NAATA. PBS. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved May 19,2011.Some of the Filipinos who left their ships in Mexico ultimately found their way to the bayous of Louisiana, where they settled in the 1760s. The film shows the remains of Filipino shrimping villages in Louisiana, where, eight to ten generations later, their descendants still reside, making them the oldest continuous settlement of Asians in America.Loni Ding (2001)."1763 FILIPINOS IN LOUISIANA".NAATA.PBS. These are the "Louisiana Manila men" with presence recorded as early as 1763.Mercene, Floro L. (2007).Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. UP Press. p.106.ISBN978-971-542-529-2.
  7. Nancy Dingler (June 23, 2007)."Filipinos made immense contributions in Vallejo".Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved December 27,2007.Railton, Ben (July 31, 2019).We the People: The 500-Year Battle Over Who Is American. Rowman Littlefield Publishers. p.94.ISBN978-1-5381-2855-8.Mercene, Floro L. (2007).Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. UP Press. p.116.ISBN978-971-542-529-2
  8. Floro L. Mercene (2007)."Filipinos in the US Civil War".Manila Men in the New World: Filipino Migration to Mexico and the Americas from the Sixteenth Century. Diliman, Quezon City: UP Press. pp.43-50. ISBN978-971-542-529-2.Foenander, Terry; Milligan, Edward (March 2015)."Asian and Pacific Islanders in the Civil War"(PDF).The Civil War. National Park Service.Archived(PDF)from the original on May 7, 2017. Retrieved April 23,2018.
  9. Joaquin Jay Gonzalez (February 1, 2009).Filipino American Faith in Action: Immigration, Religion, and Civic Engagement. NYU Press. p.21.ISBN978-0-8147-3297-7.
  10. Boyd, Monica (1971). "Oriental Immigration: The Experience of the Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino Populations in the United States".The International Migration Review.5(1): 48-61. doi: 10.2307/3002046.JSTOR 3002046.
  11. Orosa, Mario E."The Philippine Pensionado Story"(PDF).Orosa Family.Archived(PDF)from the original on July 13, 2018. Retrieved April 23,2018.Roces, Mina (December 9, 2014). "Filipina/o Migration to the United States and the Remaking of Gender Narratives, 1906-2010".Gender History.27(1): 190-206. doi:10.1111/1468-0424.12097. S2CID146568599.2005Congressional Record,Vol.151, p.S13594(14 December 2005)
  12. Maria P. P. Root (May 20, 1997).Filipino Americans: Transformation and Identity. SAGE. pp.12-13. ISBN978-0-7619-0579-0.Fresco, Crystal (2004)."Cannery Workers' and Farm Laborers' Union 1933-39: Their Strength in Unity".Seattle Civil Rights Labor History Project. University of Washington.Archived from the original on May 16, 2018. Retrieved April 23,2018.Huping Ling; Allan W. Austin (March 17, 2015).Asian American History and Culture: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p.259. ISBN978-1-317-47645-0.Sugar Y Azcar. Mona Palmer. 1920. p.166.
  13. A. F. Hinriehs (1945).Labor Unionism in American Agriculture(Report). United States Department of Labor. p.129.Archived from the original on September 14, 2018. Retrieved September 13,2018- via Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  14. De Witt, Howard A. (1979). "The Watsonville Anti-Filipino Riot of 1930: A Case Study of the Great Depression and Ethnic Conflict in California",Southern California Quarterly, 61(3),p. 290.
  15. San Juan, Jr., Epifanio (2000).After Postcolonialism: Remapping Philippines-United States Confrontations.New York: Rowman Littlefield,p. 125.
  16. Joel S. Franks (2000).Crossing Sidelines, Crossing Cultures: Sport and Asian Pacific American Cultural Citizenship.University Press of America. p.35. ISBN978-0-7618-1592-1."Depression Era: 1930s: Watsonville Riots".Picture This. Oakland Museum of California. Retrieved May 25,2019.
  17. Lee, Erika and Judy Yung (2010).Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America.New York:Oxford University Press.
  18. Melendy, H. Brett (November 1974). "Filipinos in the United States".Pacific Historical Review.43(4): 520-574. doi: 10.2307/3638431. JSTOR3638431.
  19. Min, Pyong-Gap (2006),Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues, Pine Forge Press, p. 189,ISBN978-1-4129-0556-5
  20. Irving G. Tragen (September 1944)."Statutory Prohibitions against Interracial Marriage".California Law Review.32(3): 269-280. doi:10.2307/3476961. JSTOR3476961., citing Cal. Stats. 1933, p. 561.
  21. Yo, Jackson (2006).Encyclopedia of multicultural psychology. SAGE. p.216. ISBN978-1-4129-0948-8.Retrieved September 27,2009.
  22. "Filipino Americans". Commission on Asian Pacific American Affairs.
  23. Mark L. Lazarus III."An Historical Analysis of Alien Land Law: Washington Territory State 1853-1889".Seattle University School of Law.Seattle University.
  24. Bayor, Ronald (2011).Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans.ABC-CLIO. p.714.ISBN978-0-313-35786-2. Retrieved 7 February2011.
  25. Bayor, Ronald (2011).Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans.ABC-CLIO. p.969.ISBN978-0-313-35786-2. Retrieved 7 February2011.
  26. "The US has come a long way since its first, highly restrictive naturalization law".Public Radio International. July 4, 2016. Retrieved 2020-07-31.
  27. Okihiro, Gary Y. (2005).The Columbia Guide to Asian American History. New York:Columbia University Press. p.24. ISBN978-0-231-11511-7. Retrieved 7 February2011.
  28. Mabalon, Dawn B.; Rico Reyes (2008).Filipinos in Stockton. Arcadia Publishing. Filipino American National Historical Society, Little Manila Foundation. p.8.ISBN978-0-7385-5624-6. Retrieved 7 February2012.
  29. Trinh V, Linda (2004).Mobilizing an Asian American community. Philadelphia:Temple University Press. pp.20-21.ISBN978-1-59213-262-1.
  30. "A Resolution: October is Filipino American History Month"(PDF). Filipino American Historical National Society. Retrieved 16 October2018.
  31. "Filipino American History, 425 Years and Counting".kcet.org. 18 October 2012. Retrieved 20 April2018.
  32. Federis, Marnette."California To Recognize Larry Itliong Day On Oct. 25".capradio.org. Retrieved 20 April2018.
  33. Min, Pyong Gap (2006).Asian Americans: contemporary trends and issues. Thousand Oaks, California: Pine Forge Press. p.14.ISBN978-1-4129-0556-5. Retrieved February 14,2011.
  34. Daniels, Roger (2002).Coming to America: a history of immigration and ethnicity in American life. HarperCollins. p.359.ISBN978-0-06-050577-6. Retrieved April 27,2011.Espiritu, Yen Le (2005). "Gender, Migration, and Work: Filipina Health Care Professionals to the United States".Revue Europenne des Migrations Internationales.21(1): 55-75. doi:10.4000/remi.2343.
  35. "Philippine Nurses in the U.S.Yesterday and Today".Minority Nurse. Springer. March 30, 2013.
  36. David K. Yoo; Eiichiro Azuma (January 4, 2016).The Oxford Handbook of Asian American History. Oxford University Press. p.402.ISBN978-0-19-986047-0.
  37. Arnold, Fred; Cario, Benjamin V.; Fawcett, James T.; Park, Insook Han (1989). "Estimating the Immigration Multiplier: An Analysis of Recent Korean and Filipino Immigration to the United States".The International Migration Review.23(4): 813-838. doi:10.2307/2546463. JSTOR2546463. PMID12282604.
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References



  • Fred Cordova (1983). Filipinos, Forgotten Asian Americans: A Pictorial Essay, 1763-circa 1963. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-8403-2897-7.
  • Filipino Oral History Project (1984). Voices, a Filipino American oral history. Filipino Oral History Project.
  • Takaki, Ronald (1994). In the Heart of Filipino America: Immigrants from the Pacific Isles. Chelsea House. ISBN 978-0-7910-2187-3.
  • Takaki, Ronald (1998) [1989]. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans (Updated and revised ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-83130-1.
  • John Wenham (1994). Filipino Americans: Discovering Their Past for the Future (VHS). Filipino American National Historical Society.
  • Joseph Galura; Emily P. Lawsin (2002). 1945-1955 : Filipino women in Detroit. OCSL Press, University of Michigan. ISBN 978-0-9638136-4-0.
  • Choy, Catherine Ceniza (2003). Empire of Care: Nursing and Migration in Filipino American History. Duke University Press. pp. 2003. ISBN 9780822330899. Filipinos Texas.
  • Bautista, Veltisezar B. (2008). The Filipino Americans: (1763–present) : their history, culture, and traditions. Bookhaus. p. 254. ISBN 9780931613173.
  • Filipino American National Historical Society books published by Arcadia Publishing
  • Estrella Ravelo Alamar; Willi Red Buhay (2001). Filipinos in Chicago. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-1880-0.
  • Mel Orpilla (2005). Filipinos in Vallejo. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-2969-1.
  • Mae Respicio Koerner (2007). Filipinos in Los Angeles. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-4729-9.
  • Carina Monica Montoya (2008). Filipinos in Hollywood. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5598-0.
  • Evelyn Luluguisen; Lillian Galedo (2008). Filipinos in the East Bay. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5832-5.
  • Dawn B. Mabalon, Ph.D.; Rico Reyes; Filipino American National Historical So (2008). Filipinos in Stockton. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-5624-6.
  • Carina Monica Montoya (2009). Los Angeles's Historic Filipinotown. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-6954-3.
  • Florante Peter Ibanez; Roselyn Estepa Ibanez (2009). Filipinos in Carson and the South Bay. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-7036-5.
  • Rita M. Cacas; Juanita Tamayo Lott (2009). Filipinos in Washington. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-6620-7.
  • Dorothy Laigo Cordova (2009). Filipinos in Puget Sound. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-7134-8.
  • Judy Patacsil; Rudy Guevarra, Jr.; Felix Tuyay (2010). Filipinos in San Diego. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-8001-2.
  • Tyrone Lim; Dolly Pangan-Specht; Filipino American National Historical Society (2010). Filipinos in the Willamette Valley. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-8110-1.
  • Theodore S. Gonzalves; Roderick N. Labrador (2011). Filipinos in Hawai'i. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-7608-4.
  • Filipino American National Historical Society; Manilatown Heritage Foundation; Pin@y Educational Partnerships (February 14, 2011). Filipinos in San Francisco. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4396-2524-8.
  • Elnora Kelly Tayag (May 2, 2011). Filipinos in Ventura County. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4396-2429-6.
  • Eliseo Art Arambulo Silva (2012). Filipinos of Greater Philadelphia. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-9269-5.
  • Kevin L. Nadal; Filipino-American National Historical Society (March 30, 2015). Filipinos in New York City. Arcadia Publishing Incorporated. ISBN 978-1-4396-5056-1.