History of Filipino Americans

Philippine Independence Act
Representatives from the Philippine Independence Mission in 1924 (left to right): Isauro Gabaldón, Sergio Osmena, Manuel L. Quezon, Claro M. Recto, Pedro Guevara, and Dean Jorge Bocobo ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1934 Mar 24

Philippine Independence Act

United States

The Tydings–McDuffie Act, officially the Philippine Independence Act (Pub. L. 73–127, 48 Stat. 456, enacted March 24, 1934), is an Act of Congress that established the process for the Philippines, then an American territory, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period. Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines. It also established limitations on Filipino immigration to the United States.


The act reclassified all Filipinos, including those who were living in the United States, as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America. A quota of 50 immigrants per year was established. Before this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals, but not United States citizens, and while they were allowed to migrate relatively freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US, unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US.[21]


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Last Updated: : Sat Mar 25 2023