1798 to 1802
War of the Second Coalition
by Something Something
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by most of the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples and various German monarchies, though Prussia did not join this coalition and Spain and Denmark supported France.
Table of Contents / Timeline
1798 Jan 1 -
Marengo, Province of Mantua,
In August 1798 the Battle of the Nile took place. Nelson wiped out the French fleet while it was at anchor in the shallows. 38,000 French soldiers were stranded. The French defeat allowed the formation of a second coalition, by restoring European confidence in Britain. Europe decided to attack France while she was weakened.
A three-pronged attack was planned on France, by Britain, Austria and Russia:
- Britain would attack through Holland
- Austria would attack through Italy
- Russian would attack France through Switzerland
The Second Coalition begins
1798 May 19 -
French campaign in Egypt and Syria
1798 Jul 1 -
1798 Nov 4 -
In 1798, Paul I gave General Korsakov command of an expeditionary force of 30,000 men sent to Germany to join Austria in the fight against the French Republic. At the beginning of 1799, the force was diverted to drive the French out of Switzerland. In September 1798, with the consent of the Turkish government, a Russian fleet entered the Mediterranean, where the emperor;Paul, appointing himself protector of the;Order of St. John of Jerusalem, intended to liberate;Malta;from the French. Admiral Fyodor Ushakov was sent to the Mediterranean in command of a joint Russian-Turkish squadron to support General Alexander Suvorov's upcoming Italian and Swiss expedition (1799–1800). One of Ushakov's main tasks was to take the strategically important Ionian Islands from the French. In October 1798 the French garrisons were driven from Cythera, Zakynthos, Cephalonia, and Lefkada. It remained to take the largest and best-fortified island of the archipelago, Corfu. Russia signed an alliance with Turkey on January 3, 1799. Corfu capitulated on March 3, 1799.;
Battle of Ostrach
1799 Mar 20 -
Battle of Stockach (1799)
1799 Mar 25 -
The Battle of Stockach occurred on 25 March 1799, when French and Austrian armies fought for control of the geographically strategic Hegau region in present-day Baden-Württemberg. In the broader military context, this battle constitutes a keystone in the first campaign in southwestern Germany during the Wars of the Second Coalition,
Battle of Verona (1799)
1799 Mar 26 -
Battle of Magnano
1799 Apr 5 -
Buttapietra, VR, Italy
In the Battle of Magnano on 5 April 1799, an Austrian army commanded by Pál Kray was a clear-cut victory by Kray over the French, with the Austrians sustaining 6,000 casualties while inflicting losses of 8,000 men and 18 guns on their foes. The defeat was a crushing blow to French morale and prompted Schérer to plead with the French Directory to be relieved of command.
Battle of Winterthur
1799 May 27 -
First Battle of Zurich
1799 Jun 7 -
In March, Masséna's army occupied Switzerland, preparing an attack against Tyrol through Vorarlberg. However, the defeats of French armies in Germany and Italy forced him to return to the defensive. Taking over Jourdan's army, he pulled it back into Switzerland to Zürich. Archduke Charles pursued him and drove him back west at the First Battle of Zurich. The French general André Masséna was forced to yield the city to the Austrians under Archduke Charles and retreat beyond the Limmat, where he managed to fortify his positions, resulting in a stalemate. During the summer, Russian troops under general Korsakov replaced the Austrian troops.
Battle of Trebbia (1799)
1799 Jun 17 -
Italian and Swiss expedition
1799 Jul 1 -
Battle of Cassano (1799)
1799 Jul 27 -
Cassano d'Adda, Italy
Battle of Novi (1799)
1799 Aug 15 -
Novi Ligure, Italy
Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland
1799 Aug 27 -
Second Battle of Zurich
1799 Sep 25 -
Battle of Castricum
1799 Oct 6 -
An Anglo-Russian force of 32,000 men landed in North Holland on August 27, 1799, captured the Dutch fleet at Den Helder on August 30 and the city of Alkmaar on October 3. Following a series of battles at Bergen on September 19 and Alkmaar on October 2 (also known as 2nd Bergen), they faced the French and Dutch armies at Castricum on October 6. Following a defeat at Castricum, the Duke of York, the British supreme commander, decided upon a strategic retreat to the original bridgehead in the extreme north of the peninsula. Subsequently, an agreement was negotiated with the supreme commander of the Franco-Batavian forces, General Guillaume Marie Anne Brune, that allowed the Anglo-Russian forces to evacuate this bridgehead unmolested. However, the expedition partly succeeded in its first objective, capturing a significant proportion of the Batavian fleet.
Coup of 18 Brumaire
1799 Nov 9 -
Siege of Genoa
1800 Apr 6 -
During the siege of Genoa the Austrians besieged and captured Genoa. However, the smaller French force at Genoa under André Masséna had diverted enough Austrian troops to enable Napoleon to win the Battle of Marengo and defeat the Austrians.
Battle of Marengo
1800 Jun 14 -
Spinetta Marengo, Italy
Battle of Hohenlinden
1800 Dec 3 -
Battle of Copenhagen (1801)
1801 Apr 2 -
Treaty of Amiens
1802 Mar 27 -
1802 Dec 1 -
- The territories left of the Rhine are part of France. - Daughter republics in the Netherlands, Northern Italy, and Switzerland
- The Holy Roman Empire is obliged to compensate the German princes for the lost territories left of the Rhine. - The treaty is generally considered to be the most appropriate point to mark the transition between the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars, although Napoleon was not crowned emperor until 1804.
- The consequences of the Second Coalition had proved fatal to the Directory. Blamed for the resumption of hostilities in Europe, it was compromised by its defeats in the field and by the measures required to repair them. Conditions were now ripe for the military dictatorship of Napoleon Bonaparte, who landed at Fréjus on October 9. A month later he seized power by the coup of 18–19 Brumaire Year VIII (November 9–10, 1799) to make himself first consul.
- Acerbi, Enrico. "The 1799 Campaign in Italy: Klenau and Ott Vanguards and the Coalition’s Left Wing April–June 1799"
- Blanning, Timothy. The French Revolutionary Wars. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-340-56911-5.
- Chandler, David. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: Macmillan, 1966. ISBN 978-0-02-523660-8; comprehensive coverage of N's battles
- Clausewitz, Carl von (2020). Napoleon Absent, Coalition Ascendant: The 1799 Campaign in Italy and Switzerland, Volume 1. Trans and ed. Nicholas Murray and Christopher Pringle. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-3025-7
- Clausewitz, Carl von (2021). The Coalition Crumbles, Napoleon Returns: The 1799 Campaign in Italy and Switzerland, Volume 2. Trans and ed. Nicholas Murray and Christopher Pringle. Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-3034-9* Dwyer, Philip. Napoleon: The Path to Power (2008)
- Gill, John. Thunder on the Danube Napoleon's Defeat of the Habsburgs, Volume 1. London: Frontline Books, 2008, ISBN 978-1-84415-713-6.
- Griffith, Paddy. The Art of War of Revolutionary France, 1789–1802 (1998)
- Mackesy, Piers. British Victory in Egypt: The End of Napoleon's Conquest (2010)
- Rodger, Alexander Bankier. The War of the Second Coalition: 1798 to 1801, a strategic commentary (Clarendon Press, 1964)
- Rothenberg, Gunther E. Napoleon's Great Adversaries: Archduke Charles and the Austrian Army 1792–1814. Spellmount: Stroud, (Gloucester), 2007. ISBN 978-1-86227-383-2.
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