English



13 min

1037 to 1194

Seljuk Turks

by Something Something




The Great Seljuk Empire or the Seljuk Empire was a high medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks. At its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western Anatolia and the Levant to the Hindu Kush in the east, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf in the south.






  Table of Contents / Timeline



CHAPTER   1

Prologue

1037 Jan 1 -

Kyzylorda, Kazakhstan



The Seljuks united the fractured political landscape of the eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized in culture and language, the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition,even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia. The apical ancestor of the Seljuks was their bey Seljuk. He was reputed to have served in the Khazar army, under whom, the Seljuks migrated to Khwarezm, near the city of Jend, where they converted to Islam in 985.


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CHAPTER   2

Beginning of the Great Seljuk Empire

1038 Jan 1 -

Merv and Nishapur



The grandson of Seljuk, Tughriul Bey, under whom the Seljuks wrested an empire from the Ghaznavids. Initially the Seljuks were repulsed by Mahmud and retired to Khwarezm, but Tughrul and Chaghri led them to capture Merv and Nishapur (1037/38). Later they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successor, Mas'ud, across Khorasan and Balkh. They begin to settle in eastern Persia.


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Battle of Dandanaqan


CHAPTER   3

Battle of Dandanaqan

1040 May 23 -

near Merv



When the Seljuq leader Tughrul and his brother Chaghri began raising an army, they were seen as a threat to the Ghaznavid territories. Following the looting of border cities by Seljuq raids, Sultan Mas'ud I (son of Mahmud of Ghazni) decided to expel Seljuqs from his territories. During the march of Sultan Mas'ud's army to Sarakhs, the Seljuq raiders harassed the Ghaznavid army with hit-and-run tactics. Seljuq raiders also destroyed the supply lines of Ghaznavids, cutting them off from the nearby water wells. The discipline and morale of the Ghaznavid army dropped seriously. Finally, on May 23, 1040, around 16,000 Seljuk soldiers engaged in battle against a large Ghaznavid army in Dandanaqan and defeated them near Merv.

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Tuğrul Bey avlanırken


CHAPTER   4

Baghdad retaken: Tughrul Bey is declared Sultan

1055 Jan 1 -

Baghdad, Iraq



After a series of victories from the Buyids, Tughrul enters Baghad (the capital of Sunni Islam) and is declared sultan (of Great Seljuk Sultanate) by the caliph Al-Qa'im.





Turkic raids


CHAPTER   5

Turkic raids across Asia Minor

1060 Jan 1 -

Asia Minor



The Seljuks invade Armenia in 1064 capturing Ani and Kars and raid Asia Minor finding little resistance from the Byzantime Empire.





CHAPTER   6

Battle of Damghan

1063 Jan 1 -

Iran



The founder of the Seljuk empire, Tughril, died childless and willed the throne to Alp Arslan, son of his brother Chaghri Beg. After Tughril's death however, the Seljuk prince Qutalmish hoped to become the new sultan, because Tughril was childless and he was the eldest living member of the dynasty.


Alp Arslan's main army was about 15 km east of Qutalmısh. Qutalmısh tried to change the course of a creek to block Alp Arslan's way. However Alp Arslan was able to pass his army through the newly created marsh land. Once the two Seljuk armies met, Qutalmısh's forces fled from the battle. Resul as well as Qutalmısh's son Suleyman (later founder of the Sultanate of Rum) were taken prisoner. Qutalmısh escaped, but while gathering his forces for an orderly retreat to his fort Girdkuh, he fell from his horse in a hilly terrain and died on 7 December 1063.


Although Qutalmısh's son Suleyman was taken prisoner, Alp Arslan pardoned him and sent him into exile. But later this proved to be an opportunity for him; for he founded the Sultanate of Rum, which outlasted the Great Seljuk Empire.


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CHAPTER   7

Alp Arslan becomes sultan of the Seljuk Empire

1064 Apr 27 -

Damghan, Iran



Tughril Bey died in 1063 and had designated his successor as Suleiman, Arslan's infant brother. Arslan and his uncle Kutalmish both contested this succession which was resolved at the battle of Damghan in 1063. Arslan defeated Kutalmish for the throne and succeeded on 27 April 1064 as sultan of the Seljuk Empire, thus becoming sole monarch of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.

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CHAPTER   8

Alp Arslan conquers Armenia and Georgia

1064 Jun 1 -

Ani, Armenia



With the hope of capturing Caesarea Mazaca, the capital of Cappadocia, Alp Arslan placed himself at the head of the Turkoman" cavalry, crossed the Euphrates, and entered and invaded the city. Along with Nizam al-Mulk, he then marched into Armenia and Georgia, which he conquered in 1064. After a siege of 25 days, the Seljuks captured Ani, the capital city of Armenia, and slaughtered its population.


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CHAPTER   9

Byzantine struggle

1068 Jan 1 -

Cilicia, Turkey



En route to fight the Fatimids in Syria in 1068, Alp Arslan invaded the Byzantine Empire. The Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes, assuming command in person, met the invaders in Cilicia. In three arduous campaigns, the Turks were defeated in detail and driven across the Euphrates in 1070. The first two campaigns were conducted by the emperor himself, while the third was directed by Manuel Comnenos, great-uncle of Emperor Manuel Comnenos.


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Battle of Manzikert | ©Kings and Generals


CHAPTER   10

Battle of Manzikert

1071 Aug 26 -

Manzikert



The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire (led by Alp Arslan). The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been travelling westward during the 11th century, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.


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Malik-Shah I seated on his throne


CHAPTER   11

Malik Shah becomes the sultan.

1072 Jan 1 -

Isfahan, Iran



Under Alp Arslan's successor, Malik Shah, and his two Persian viziers, Nizām al-Mulk and Tāj al-Mulk, the Seljuk state expanded in various directions, to the former Iranian border of the days before the Arab invasion, so that it soon bordered China in the east and the Byzantines in the west. Malikshāh was the one who moved the capital from Rey to Isfahan. It was under his rule and leadership that the Saljūq Empire had reached the height of its successes.

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CHAPTER   12

Battle of Kerj Abu Dulaf

1073 Jan 1 -

Hamadan, Hamadan Province, I



Battle of Kerj Abu Dulaf was fought in 1073 between the Seljuk Army of Malik-Shah I and KermanSeljuk army of Qavurt and his son, Sultan-shah. It took place approximately near Kerj Abu Dulaf, the present-day between Hamadan and Arak, and was a decisive Malik-Shah I victory. After death Alp-Arslan, Malik-Shah was declared as the new sultan of the empire. However, right after Malik-Shah accession, his uncle Qavurt claimed the throne for himself and sent Malik-Shah a message which said: "I am the eldest brother, and you are a youthful son; I have the greater right to my brother Alp-Arslan's inheritance." Malik-Shah then replied by sending the following message: "A brother does not inherit when there is a son.". This message enraged Qavurt, who thereafter occupied Isfahan. In 1073 a battle took place near Hamadan, which lasted three days. Qavurt was accompanied by his seven sons, and his army consisted of Turkmens, while the army of Malik-Shah consisted of ghulams ("military slaves") and contingents of Kurdish and Arab troops.During the battle, the Turks of Malik-Shah's army mutinied against him, but he nevertheless managed to defeat and capture Qavurt. Qavurt then begged for mercy and in return promised to retire to Oman. However, Nizam al-Mulk declined the offer, claiming that sparing him was an indication of weakness. After some time, Qavurt was strangled to death with a bowstring, while two of his sons were blinded.


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Ghaznavid or Kara-Khanid Warrior


CHAPTER   13

The Seljuks defeat the Qarakhanids, taking Bukhara and Samarkand

1073 Jan 1 -

Bukhara, Uzbekistan



In 1040, the Seljuk Turks defeated the Ghaznavids at the Battle of Dandanaqan and entered Iran. Conflict with the Karakhanids broke out, but the Karakhanids were able to withstand attacks by the Seljuks initially, even briefly taking control of Seljuk towns in Greater Khorasan. The Karakhanids, however, developed serious conflicts with the religious classes (the ulama), and the ulama of Transoxiana then requested the intervention of the Seljuks. In 1089, during the reign of Ibrahim's grandson Ahmad b. Khidr, the Seljuks entered and took control of Samarkand, together with the domains belonging to the Western Khanate. The Western Karakhanids Khanate became a vassal of the Seljuks for half a century, and the rulers of the Western Khanate were largely whomever the Seljuks chose to place on the throne. Ahmad b. Khidr was returned to power by the Seljuks, but in 1095, the ulama accused Ahmad of heresy and managed to secure his execution. The Karakhanids of Kashgar also declared their submission following a Seljuk campaign into Talas and Zhetysu, but the Eastern Khanate was a Seljuk vassal for only a short time. At the beginning of the 12th century they invaded Transoxiana and briefly occupied the Seljuk town of Termez

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Danişmend Gazi


CHAPTER   14

Danishmend Gazi founds beylik of Danishmends.

1075 Jan 1 -

Sivas, Turkey



The defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert allowed the Turks, including forces loyal to Danishmend Gazi, to occupy nearly all of Anatolia. Danishmend Gazi and his forces took as their lands central Anatolia, conquering the cities of Neocaesarea, Tokat, Sivas, and Euchaita. This state controls a major route from Syria to the Byzantine Empire and this becomes a strategically important during the First Crusades.

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CHAPTER   15

Malik Shah I invades into Georgia

1076 Jan 1 -

Georgia



Malik Shah I surged into Georgia and reduced many settlements to ruins. from 1079/80 onward, Georgia was pressured into submitting to Malik-Shah to ensure a precious degree of peace at the price of an annual tribute.


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CHAPTER   16

The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum

1077 Jan 1 -

Asia Minor



Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (a cousin of Melik Shah) founds Konya state in what is now west Turkey. Although a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire it soon becomes totally independent. The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, just six years after the Byzantine provinces of central Anatolia were conquered at the Battle of Manzikert (1071). It had its capital first at İznik and then at Konya. These Turkish groups start to disrupt the pilgrimage route going into Asia Minor.


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CHAPTER   17

Seljuk Turks take Damascus

1078 Jan 1 -

Damascus



Sultan Malik-Shah I sent his brother Tutush to Damascus to help Atsiz ibn Uvaq al-Khwarazmi, who was besieged. After the siege had ended, Tutush had Atsiz executed and installed himself in Damascus. He took over the war against the Fatimids. He may have begun to disrupt the pilgrimage trade.







CHAPTER   18

Tzachas founds a principality in Smyrna(now Izmir).

1081 Jan 1 -

Smyrna



Originally in Byzantine service, he rebelled and seized Smyrna, much of the Aegean coastlands of Asia Minor and the islands lying off shore. He founded a principality in Smyrna, giving the Seljuks access to Aegean Sea.

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The Seljuks take Antioch


CHAPTER   19

The Seljuks take Antioch and Aleppo

1085 Jan 1 -

Antioch, Turkey



Conquest of Antakya (Antioch) led by Tutush, South Anatolia.




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CHAPTER   20

Malik Shah dies: Division of Empire

1092 Nov 19 -

Isfahan, Iran



Malik-Shah died on 19 November 1092 while he was hunting. Upon his death, the Seljuk Empire fell into chaos, as rival successors and regional governors carved up their empire and waged war against each other. The individual tribes, the Danishmends, Mangujekids, Saltuqids, Tengribirmish begs, Artuqids (Ortoqids) and Akhlat-Shahs, had started vying with each other to establish their own independent states. Malik Shāh I was succeeded in Anatolia by Kilij Arslan I, who founded the Sultanate of Rum, and in Syria by his brother Tutush I. In Persia he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I, whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq in Iraq, Muhammad I in Baghdad, and Ahmad Sanjar in Khorasan. The situation within the Seljuk lands was further complicated by the beginning of the First Crusade, which detached large portions of Syria and Palestine from Muslim control in 1098 and 1099. The success of the First Crusade is at least in part attributable to the political confusion which resulted from Malik-Shah's death


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CHAPTER   21

Tutush dies in battle. Seljuk hegemony in Syria fragments

1095 Jan 1 -

Syria



The armies of Tutush (along with his general the Kakuyid Ali ibn Faramurz) and Berk-Yaruq met outside Ray on 17 Safar 488 (26 February 1095 CE), but most of Tutush's allies deserted him before battle commenced, and he was killed by a ghulam (soldier-slave) of a former ally, Aq-Sonqur. Tutush was decapitated and his head was displayed in Baghdad. Tutush's younger son Duqaq then inherited Damascus, whilst Radwan received Aleppo, splitting their father's realm. Turkish power fragments just before the First Crusades.

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CHAPTER   22

First Crusade

1096 Aug 15 -

Levant



During the First Crusade, the fractured states of the Seljuks were generally more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours than with cooperating against the crusaders.


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CHAPTER   23

First Crusade: Siege of Xerigordos

1096 Sep 29 -

Xerigordos



The Siege of Xerigordos in 1096, Germans of the People's Crusade under Reinald against the Turks commanded by Elchanes, general of Kilij Arslan I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm. The crusader raiding party captured the Turkish fort of Xerigordos, about four days' march from Nicaea, in an attempt to set up a pillaging outpost. Elchanes arrived three days later and besieged the crusaders. The defenders had no water supply, and after eight days of siege, they surrendered on September 29. Some of the crusaders converted to Islam, while others who refused were killed.


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CHAPTER   24

The First Crusade: Siege of Edessa and The Battle of Antioch

1098 Jun 28 -

Edessa & Antioch



In 1098, when Kerbogha heard that the Crusaders had besieged Antioch, he gathered his troops and marched to relieve the city. On his way, he attempted to regain Edessa following its recent conquest by Baldwin I, so as not to leave any Frankish garrisons behind him on his way to Antioch. For three weeks he pointlessly besieged the city before deciding to continue on to Antioch. His reinforcements could have perhaps ended the Crusade before the walls of Antioch, and, indeed, the whole Crusade was perhaps saved by his time wasted at Edessa. By the time he arrived, around June 7, the Crusaders had already won the siege, and had held the city since 3 June. They were not able to restock the city before Kerbogha, in turn, began besieging the city. On 28 June, when Bohemond, the leader of the Christian army, decided to attack, the Emirs decided to humble Kerbogha by abandoning him at the critical moment. Kerbogha was taken by surprise by the organization and discipline of the Christian army. This motivated, unified Christian army was in fact so large that Kerbogha's strategy of dividing his own forces was ineffective. He was quickly routed by the Crusaders. He was forced to retreat, and returned to Mosul a broken man.

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CHAPTER   25

Battle of Ertsukhi

1104 Jan 1 -

Tbilisi, Georgia



The Kingdom of Kakheti-Hereti had been a tributary to the Great Seljuq Empire since the 1080s. However, in the 1104, the energetic Georgian king David IV was able to exploit internal unrest in the Seljuq state and successfully campaigned against Seljuk vassal state Kakheti-Hereti, finally turning it into one of his Saeristavo. The king of Kakheti-Hereti, Agsartan II, was captured by the Georgian nobles Baramisdze and Arshiani and was imprisoned in Kutaisi.


The Seljuk Sultan Barkiyaruq sent a large army to Georgia to retake Kakheti and Hereti. The battle was fought in southeastern part of the Kingdom, near the Ertsukhi. King David of Georgia personally took part in the battle, where the Seljuks were decisively defeated.


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CHAPTER   26

Battle of Ghazni

1117 Jan 1 -

Ghazni, Afghanistan



The death of Mas'ud III of Ghazni in 1115 began a heated contest for the throne. Shirzad took the throne that year but the next year he was assassinated by his younger brother Arslan. Arslan had to face the rebellion of his other brother, Bahram, who received support from the Seljuk Sultan Ahmad Sanjar. Ahmad Sanjar invading from Khorasan took his army into Afghanistan and inflicted a crushing defeat to Arslan near Ghazni at Shahrabad. Arslan managed to escape and Bahram succeeded to the throne as the Seljuk's vassal.


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Coronation of Ahmad Sanjar


CHAPTER   27

Ahmad Sanjar becomes Sultan

1118 Jan 1 -

Merv, Turkmenistan




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CHAPTER   28

Battle of Didgori

1121 Aug 12 -

Didgori, Georgia



After pillaging the County of Edessa, Seljukid commander Ilghazi made peace with the Crusaders. In 1121 he went north towards Georgia and with supposedly up to 250 000 – 350 000 troops, including men led by his son-in-law Sadaqah and Sultan Malik of Ganja, he invaded the Kingdom of Georgia. The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia and the Great Seljuq Empire at the narrow place of Didgori, 40 km west of Tbilisi, on August 12, 1121. The large Muslim army, under the command of Ilghazi, was unable to maneuver, and suffered a devastating defeat due to King David IV of Georgia’s effective military tactics. The battle at Didgori was the culmination of the entire Georgian-Seljuk wars, and led to the Georgians’ reconquest of Tbilisi in 1122.

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CHAPTER   29

Battle of Qatwan

1141 Sep 9 -

North of Samarkand, Uzbekist



Ahmad, son of Malik Shah I, marched to eliminate the threat posed by Kara Khitans and faced them in the vicinity of Samarkand at the Battle of Qatwan. He suffered his first defeat in his long career, and as a result lost all Seljuk territory east of the Syr Darya.

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CHAPTER   30

Siege of Edessa

1144 Nov 28 -

Edessa



The siege of Edessa took place from November 28 to December 24, 1144, resulting in the fall of the capital of the crusader County of Edessa to Zengi, the atabeg of Mosul and Aleppo. This event was the catalyst for the Second Crusade.

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Khwarazmis Cavalryman


CHAPTER   31

The Khwarazmis (Turkish mercenaries) conquer Persia from the Seljuks

1153 Jan 1 -

Persia








CHAPTER   32

Great Seljuk Empire collapses

1194 Jan 1 -

Anatolia, Turkey



For a brief period, Togrul III was the Sultan of all Seljuk except for Anatolia. In 1194, however, Togrul was defeated by Takash, the Shah of Khwarezmid Empire, and the Seljuk Empire finally collapsed. Of the former Seljuk Empire, only the Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia remained






CHAPTER   33

Epilogue

1194 Jan 2 -

Anatolia, Turkey



The Seljuks were educated in the service of Muslim courts as slaves or mercenaries. The dynasty brought revival, energy, and reunion to the Islamic civilization hitherto dominated by Arabs and Persians.


The Seljuks founded universities and were also patrons of art and literature. Their reign is characterized by Persian astronomers such as Omar Khayyám, and the Persian philosopher al-Ghazali. Under the Seljuks, New Persian became the language for historical recording, while the center of Arabic language culture shifted from Baghdad to Cairo.


As the dynasty declined in the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would rise to power and conquer the rest.





Characters






References



  • Basan, Osman Aziz (2010). The Great Seljuqs: A History. Taylor & Francis.
  • Korobeinikov, Dimitri (2015). "The Kings of the East and the West: The Seljuk Dynastic Concept and Titles in the Muslim and Christian sources". In Peacock, A.C.S.; Yildiz, Sara Nur (eds.). The Seljuks of Anatolia. I.B. Tauris.
  • Mecit, Songül (2014). The Rum Seljuqs: Evolution of a Dynasty. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134508990.
  • Peacock, A.C.S. (2015). The Great Seljuk Empire. Edinburgh University Press.
  • Peacock, A.C.S.; Yıldız, Sara Nur, eds. (2013). The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1848858879.
  • Peacock, Andrew C. S. (2010). Early Seljūq History: A New Interpretation.



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