1037 to 1194
by Something Something
The Great Seljuk Empire or the Seljuk Empire was a high medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks. At its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area stretching from western Anatolia and the Levant to the Hindu Kush in the east, and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf in the south.
Table of Contents / Timeline
1037 Jan 1 -
The Seljuks united the fractured political landscape of the eastern Islamic world and played a key role in the first and second crusades. Highly Persianized in culture and language, the Seljuks also played an important role in the development of the Turko-Persian tradition,even exporting Persian culture to Anatolia. The apical ancestor of the Seljuks was their bey Seljuk. He was reputed to have served in the Khazar army, under whom, the Seljuks migrated to Khwarezm, near the city of Jend, where they converted to Islam in 985.
Beginning of the Great Seljuk Empire
1038 Jan 1 -
Merv and Nishapur
The grandson of Seljuk, Tughriul Bey, under whom the Seljuks wrested an empire from the Ghaznavids. Initially the Seljuks were repulsed by Mahmud and retired to Khwarezm, but Tughrul and Chaghri led them to capture Merv and Nishapur (1037/38). Later they repeatedly raided and traded territory with his successor, Mas'ud, across Khorasan and Balkh. They begin to settle in eastern Persia.
Battle of Dandanaqan
1040 May 23 -
Baghdad retaken: Tughrul Bey is declared Sultan
1055 Jan 1 -
After a series of victories from the Buyids, Tughrul enters Baghad (the capital of Sunni Islam) and is declared sultan (of Great Seljuk Sultanate) by the caliph Al-Qa'im.
Turkic raids across Asia Minor
1060 Jan 1 -
Battle of Damghan
1063 Jan 1 -
The founder of the Seljuk empire, Tughril, died childless and willed the throne to Alp Arslan, son of his brother Chaghri Beg. After Tughril's death however, the Seljuk prince Qutalmish hoped to become the new sultan, because Tughril was childless and he was the eldest living member of the dynasty.
Alp Arslan's main army was about 15 km east of Qutalmısh. Qutalmısh tried to change the course of a creek to block Alp Arslan's way. However Alp Arslan was able to pass his army through the newly created marsh land. Once the two Seljuk armies met, Qutalmısh's forces fled from the battle. Resul as well as Qutalmısh's son Suleyman (later founder of the Sultanate of Rum) were taken prisoner. Qutalmısh escaped, but while gathering his forces for an orderly retreat to his fort Girdkuh, he fell from his horse in a hilly terrain and died on 7 December 1063.
Although Qutalmısh's son Suleyman was taken prisoner, Alp Arslan pardoned him and sent him into exile. But later this proved to be an opportunity for him; for he founded the Sultanate of Rum, which outlasted the Great Seljuk Empire.
Alp Arslan becomes sultan of the Seljuk Empire
1064 Apr 27 -
Alp Arslan conquers Armenia and Georgia
1064 Jun 1 -
With the hope of capturing Caesarea Mazaca, the capital of Cappadocia, Alp Arslan placed himself at the head of the Turkoman" cavalry, crossed the Euphrates, and entered and invaded the city. Along with Nizam al-Mulk, he then marched into Armenia and Georgia, which he conquered in 1064. After a siege of 25 days, the Seljuks captured Ani, the capital city of Armenia, and slaughtered its population.
1068 Jan 1 -
En route to fight the Fatimids in Syria in 1068, Alp Arslan invaded the Byzantine Empire. The Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes, assuming command in person, met the invaders in Cilicia. In three arduous campaigns, the Turks were defeated in detail and driven across the Euphrates in 1070. The first two campaigns were conducted by the emperor himself, while the third was directed by Manuel Comnenos, great-uncle of Emperor Manuel Comnenos.
Battle of Manzikert
1071 Aug 26 -
The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire (led by Alp Arslan). The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been travelling westward during the 11th century, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.
Malik Shah becomes the sultan.
1072 Jan 1 -
Battle of Kerj Abu Dulaf
1073 Jan 1 -
Hamadan, Hamadan Province, I
Battle of Kerj Abu Dulaf was fought in 1073 between the Seljuk Army of Malik-Shah I and KermanSeljuk army of Qavurt and his son, Sultan-shah. It took place approximately near Kerj Abu Dulaf, the present-day between Hamadan and Arak, and was a decisive Malik-Shah I victory. After death Alp-Arslan, Malik-Shah was declared as the new sultan of the empire. However, right after Malik-Shah accession, his uncle Qavurt claimed the throne for himself and sent Malik-Shah a message which said: "I am the eldest brother, and you are a youthful son; I have the greater right to my brother Alp-Arslan's inheritance." Malik-Shah then replied by sending the following message: "A brother does not inherit when there is a son.". This message enraged Qavurt, who thereafter occupied Isfahan. In 1073 a battle took place near Hamadan, which lasted three days. Qavurt was accompanied by his seven sons, and his army consisted of Turkmens, while the army of Malik-Shah consisted of ghulams ("military slaves") and contingents of Kurdish and Arab troops.During the battle, the Turks of Malik-Shah's army mutinied against him, but he nevertheless managed to defeat and capture Qavurt. Qavurt then begged for mercy and in return promised to retire to Oman. However, Nizam al-Mulk declined the offer, claiming that sparing him was an indication of weakness. After some time, Qavurt was strangled to death with a bowstring, while two of his sons were blinded.
The Seljuks defeat the Qarakhanids, taking Bukhara and Samarkand
1073 Jan 1 -
Danishmend Gazi founds beylik of Danishmends.
1075 Jan 1 -
Malik Shah I invades into Georgia
1076 Jan 1 -
Malik Shah I surged into Georgia and reduced many settlements to ruins. from 1079/80 onward, Georgia was pressured into submitting to Malik-Shah to ensure a precious degree of peace at the price of an annual tribute.
The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
1077 Jan 1 -
Suleiman ibn Qutulmish (a cousin of Melik Shah) founds Konya state in what is now west Turkey. Although a vassal of Great Seljuk Empire it soon becomes totally independent. The Sultanate of Rum seceded from the Great Seljuk Empire under Suleiman ibn Qutulmish in 1077, just six years after the Byzantine provinces of central Anatolia were conquered at the Battle of Manzikert (1071). It had its capital first at İznik and then at Konya. These Turkish groups start to disrupt the pilgrimage route going into Asia Minor.
Seljuk Turks take Damascus
1078 Jan 1 -
Sultan Malik-Shah I sent his brother Tutush to Damascus to help Atsiz ibn Uvaq al-Khwarazmi, who was besieged. After the siege had ended, Tutush had Atsiz executed and installed himself in Damascus. He took over the war against the Fatimids. He may have begun to disrupt the pilgrimage trade.
Tzachas founds a principality in Smyrna(now Izmir).
1081 Jan 1 -
The Seljuks take Antioch and Aleppo
1085 Jan 1 -
Malik Shah dies: Division of Empire
1092 Nov 19 -
Malik-Shah died on 19 November 1092 while he was hunting. Upon his death, the Seljuk Empire fell into chaos, as rival successors and regional governors carved up their empire and waged war against each other. The individual tribes, the Danishmends, Mangujekids, Saltuqids, Tengribirmish begs, Artuqids (Ortoqids) and Akhlat-Shahs, had started vying with each other to establish their own independent states. Malik Shāh I was succeeded in Anatolia by Kilij Arslan I, who founded the Sultanate of Rum, and in Syria by his brother Tutush I. In Persia he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I, whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq in Iraq, Muhammad I in Baghdad, and Ahmad Sanjar in Khorasan. The situation within the Seljuk lands was further complicated by the beginning of the First Crusade, which detached large portions of Syria and Palestine from Muslim control in 1098 and 1099. The success of the First Crusade is at least in part attributable to the political confusion which resulted from Malik-Shah's death
Tutush dies in battle. Seljuk hegemony in Syria fragments
1095 Jan 1 -
1096 Aug 15 -
During the First Crusade, the fractured states of the Seljuks were generally more concerned with consolidating their own territories and gaining control of their neighbours than with cooperating against the crusaders.
First Crusade: Siege of Xerigordos
1096 Sep 29 -
The Siege of Xerigordos in 1096, Germans of the People's Crusade under Reinald against the Turks commanded by Elchanes, general of Kilij Arslan I, the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm. The crusader raiding party captured the Turkish fort of Xerigordos, about four days' march from Nicaea, in an attempt to set up a pillaging outpost. Elchanes arrived three days later and besieged the crusaders. The defenders had no water supply, and after eight days of siege, they surrendered on September 29. Some of the crusaders converted to Islam, while others who refused were killed.
The First Crusade: Siege of Edessa and The Battle of Antioch
1098 Jun 28 -
Edessa & Antioch
Battle of Ertsukhi
1104 Jan 1 -
The Kingdom of Kakheti-Hereti had been a tributary to the Great Seljuq Empire since the 1080s. However, in the 1104, the energetic Georgian king David IV was able to exploit internal unrest in the Seljuq state and successfully campaigned against Seljuk vassal state Kakheti-Hereti, finally turning it into one of his Saeristavo. The king of Kakheti-Hereti, Agsartan II, was captured by the Georgian nobles Baramisdze and Arshiani and was imprisoned in Kutaisi.
The Seljuk Sultan Barkiyaruq sent a large army to Georgia to retake Kakheti and Hereti. The battle was fought in southeastern part of the Kingdom, near the Ertsukhi. King David of Georgia personally took part in the battle, where the Seljuks were decisively defeated.
Battle of Ghazni
1117 Jan 1 -
The death of Mas'ud III of Ghazni in 1115 began a heated contest for the throne. Shirzad took the throne that year but the next year he was assassinated by his younger brother Arslan. Arslan had to face the rebellion of his other brother, Bahram, who received support from the Seljuk Sultan Ahmad Sanjar. Ahmad Sanjar invading from Khorasan took his army into Afghanistan and inflicted a crushing defeat to Arslan near Ghazni at Shahrabad. Arslan managed to escape and Bahram succeeded to the throne as the Seljuk's vassal.
Ahmad Sanjar becomes Sultan
1118 Jan 1 -
Battle of Didgori
1121 Aug 12 -
Battle of Qatwan
1141 Sep 9 -
North of Samarkand, Uzbekist
Siege of Edessa
1144 Nov 28 -
The Khwarazmis (Turkish mercenaries) conquer Persia from the Seljuks
1153 Jan 1 -
Great Seljuk Empire collapses
1194 Jan 1 -
For a brief period, Togrul III was the Sultan of all Seljuk except for Anatolia. In 1194, however, Togrul was defeated by Takash, the Shah of Khwarezmid Empire, and the Seljuk Empire finally collapsed. Of the former Seljuk Empire, only the Sultanate of Rûm in Anatolia remained
1194 Jan 2 -
The Seljuks were educated in the service of Muslim courts as slaves or mercenaries. The dynasty brought revival, energy, and reunion to the Islamic civilization hitherto dominated by Arabs and Persians.
The Seljuks founded universities and were also patrons of art and literature. Their reign is characterized by Persian astronomers such as Omar Khayyám, and the Persian philosopher al-Ghazali. Under the Seljuks, New Persian became the language for historical recording, while the center of Arabic language culture shifted from Baghdad to Cairo.
As the dynasty declined in the middle of the thirteenth century, the Mongols invaded Anatolia in the 1260s and divided it into small emirates called the Anatolian beyliks. Eventually one of these, the Ottoman, would rise to power and conquer the rest.
- Basan, Osman Aziz (2010). The Great Seljuqs: A History. Taylor & Francis.
- Korobeinikov, Dimitri (2015). "The Kings of the East and the West: The Seljuk Dynastic Concept and Titles in the Muslim and Christian sources". In Peacock, A.C.S.; Yildiz, Sara Nur (eds.). The Seljuks of Anatolia. I.B. Tauris.
- Mecit, Songül (2014). The Rum Seljuqs: Evolution of a Dynasty. Routledge. ISBN 978-1134508990.
- Peacock, A.C.S. (2015). The Great Seljuk Empire. Edinburgh University Press.
- Peacock, A.C.S.; Yıldız, Sara Nur, eds. (2013). The Seljuks of Anatolia: Court and Society in the Medieval Middle East. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 978-1848858879.
- Peacock, Andrew C. S. (2010). Early Seljūq History: A New Interpretation.
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