English



8 min

1754 to 1763

French and Indian War

by Something Something




The French and Indian War pitted the colonies of British America against those of New France, each side supported by military units from the parent country and by Native American allies.


Pls also check out our North America series:

American Revolutionary War

War of 1812



  Table of Contents / Timeline




CHAPTER   1

Prologue

1754 Jan 1 -

Quebec City



The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) was a global conflict, "a struggle for global primacy between Britain and France", which also had a major effect on the Spanish Empire. Long-standing colonial rivalries between Britain against France and Spain in North America and the Caribbean islands were fought on a grand scale with consequential results.




The coureurs des bois were French Canadian fur traders, who did business with natives throughout the Mississippi and St. Lawrence watershed.


CHAPTER   2

Causes and Origins of the War

1754 Jan 3 -

Europe



1. Territorial Expansion in the new world: The French and Indian War began over the specific issue of whether the upper Ohio River valley was a part of the British Empire, and therefore open for trade and settlement by Virginians and Pennsylvanians, or part of the French Empire. 2. Economics: Fur trade in the colonies 3. Political: Balance of power in Europe

More details



Portrait of George Washington by Charles Willson Peale, 1772


CHAPTER   3

Battle of Fort Necessity

1754 Jul 3 -

Farmington, Pennsylvania



The Battle of Fort Necessity (also called the Battle of the Great Meadows) took place on July 3, 1754, in what is now Farmington in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. The engagement, along with the May 28 skirmish known as the Battle of Jumonville Glen, was George Washington's first military experience and the only surrender of his military career. The Battle of Fort Necessity began the French and Indian War, which later spiraled into the global conflict known as the Seven Years' War.

More details



Benjamin Franklin's cartoon encouraging support for the Congress


CHAPTER   4

Albany Congress

1754 Jul 11 -

Albany,New York



The Albany Congress, also known as the Albany Convention of 1754, was a meeting of representatives sent by the legislatures of seven of the thirteen British colonies in British America: Connecticut, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island.

More details



Washington the Soldier


CHAPTER   5

Battle of the Wilderness(Monongahela)

1755 Jul 9 -

Braddock, Pennsylvania



The Battle of the Monongahela (also known as the Battle of Braddock's Field and the Battle of the Wilderness) took place on 9 July 1755, at the beginning of the French and Indian War, at Braddock's Field in what is now Braddock, Pennsylvania, 10 miles (16 km) east of Pittsburgh. A British force under General Edward Braddock, moving to take Fort Duquesne, was defeated by a force of French and Canadian troops under Captain Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu with its American Indian allies.

More details



Deportation of the Acadians, Grand-Pré


CHAPTER   6

Expulsion of the Acadians

1755 Aug 10 -

Acadia



The Expulsion of the Acadians, also known as the Great Upheaval, the Great Expulsion, the Great Deportation, and the Deportation of the Acadians was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from the present-day Canadian Maritime provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and northern Maine — parts of an area historically known as Acadia, causing the death of thousands of people. The Expulsion (1755–1764) occurred during the French and Indian War (the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War) and was part of the British military campaign against New France. The British first deported Acadians to the Thirteen Colonies, and after 1758, transported additional Acadians to Britain and France. In all, of the 14,100 Acadians in the region, approximately 11,500 Acadians were deported. A census of 1764 indicates that 2,600 Acadians remained in the colony having eluded capture.

More details



In August 1756, French soldiers and native warriors led by Louis-Joseph de Montcalm successfully attacked Fort Oswego.


CHAPTER   7

Battle of Fort Oswego

1756 Aug 10 -

Fort Oswego



The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War won in spite of New France's military vulnerability. During the week of August 10, 1756, a force of regulars and Canadian militia under General Montcalm captured and occupied the British fortifications at Fort Oswego, located at the site of present-day Oswego, New York.

More details





CHAPTER   8

Siege of Fort William Henry

1757 Aug 3 -

Lake George, New York



The siege of Fort William Henry (3–9 August 1757, French: Bataille de Fort William Henry) was conducted by French General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm against the British-held Fort William Henry. The fort, located at the southern end of Lake George, on the frontier between the British Province of New York and the French Province of Canada, was garrisoned by a poorly supported force of British regulars and provincial militia led by Lieutenant Colonel George Monro. After several days of bombardment, Monro surrendered to Montcalm, whose force included nearly 2,000 Indians from various tribes. The terms of surrender included the withdrawal of the garrison to Fort Edward, with specific terms that the French military protect the British from the Indians as they withdrew from the area.

More details



The Victory of Montcalm's Troops at Carillon.


CHAPTER   9

Battle of Carillon

1758 Jul 6 -

Fort Carillon



The British military campaigns for the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War in 1758 contained three primary objectives. Two of these objectives, captures of Fort Louisbourg and Fort Duquesne met with success. The third campaign, an expedition involving 16,000 men under the command of General James Abercrombie, was disastrously defeated on July 8, 1758, by a much smaller French force when it attempted the capture of Fort Carillon (known today as Fort Ticonderoga).

More details



The capture of French Fort Frontenac by the British in 1758 (Battle of Fort Frontenac)


CHAPTER   10

Battle of Fort Frontenac

1758 Aug 24 -

Kingston, Ontario



Lieutenant Colonel John Bradstreet renewed an earlier proposal to capture Fort Frontenac, a French fort and trading post on the northern shore of Lake Ontario near where it empties into the St. Lawrence River. Abercrombie, who had first rejected the idea, citing the need for troops to attack Carillon, approved Bradstreet's plan to move up the Mohawk River valley to the site of Fort Oswego (captured and burned by the French in 1756), and then cross the lake to assault Frontenac. The British considered Fort Frontenac to be a strategic threat since it was in a position to command transportation and communications to other French fortifications and outposts along the St. Lawrence – Great Lakes water route and in the Ohio Valley. Fort Frontenac was also regarded as a threat to Fort Oswego, which was built by the British across the lake from Fort Frontenac in 1722 to compete with Fort Frontenac for the Indian trade, and later enhanced as a military establishment.

More details





CHAPTER   11

Battle of Fort Duquesne

1758 Sep 1 -

Fort Duquesne



The Battle of Fort Duquesne was British assault on the eponymous French fort (later the site of Pittsburgh) that was repulsed with heavy losses on 14 September 1758, during the French and Indian War. The attack on Fort Duquesne was part of a large-scale British expedition with 6,000 troops led by General John Forbes to drive the French out of the contested Ohio Country (the upper Ohio River Valley) and clear the way for an invasion of Canada. Forbes ordered Major James Grant of the 77th Regiment to reconnoiter the area with 850 men. Grant, apparently on his own initiative, proceeded to attack the French position using traditional European military tactics. His force was out-maneuvered, surrounded, and largely destroyed by the French and their native allies led by François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery. Major Grant was taken prisoner and the British survivors retreated fitfully to Fort Ligonier.

More details




CHAPTER   12

Treaty of Easton

1758 Oct 26 -

Easton, Pennsylvania



The Treaty of Easton was a colonial agreement in North America signed in October 1758 during the French and Indian War (Seven Years' War) between British colonials and the chiefs of 13 Native American nations, representing tribes of the Iroquois, Lenape (Delaware), and Shawnee.

More details



Fort Niagara


CHAPTER   13

Battle of Fort Niagara

1759 Jul 6 -

Youngstown, New York



The Battle of Fort Niagara was a siege late in the French and Indian War, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. The British siege of Fort Niagara in July 1759 was part of a campaign to remove French control of the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regions, making possible a western invasion of the French province of Canada in conjunction with General James Wolfe's invasion to the east.

More details



Marquis de Montcalm and French troops celebrating their victory at the Battle of Ticonderoga on 8th July 1758 in the French and Indian War


CHAPTER   14

Battle of Ticonderoga (1759)

1759 Jul 26 -

Ticonderoga, New York



The 1759 Battle of Ticonderoga was a minor confrontation at Fort Carillon (later renamed Fort Ticonderoga) on July 26 and 27, 1759, during the French and Indian War. A British military force of more than 11,000 men under the command of General Sir Jeffery Amherst moved artillery to high ground overlooking the fort, which was defended by a garrison of 400 Frenchmen under the command of Brigadier General François-Charles de Bourlamaque.

More details



The Death of General Wolfe, Benjamin West


CHAPTER   15

Battle of Quebec

1759 Sep 13 -

Quebec, New France



The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec (French: Bataille des Plaines d'Abraham, Première bataille de Québec), was a pivotal battle in the Seven Years' War (referred to as the French and Indian War to describe the North American theatre). The battle, which began on 13 September 1759, was fought on a plateau by the British Army and Royal Navy against the French Army, just outside the walls of Quebec City on land that was originally owned by a farmer named Abraham Martin, hence the name of the battle. The battle involved fewer than 10,000 troops in total, but proved to be a deciding moment in the conflict between France and Britain over the fate of New France, influencing the later creation of Canada.

More details



Capitulation de Montréal en 1760


CHAPTER   16

Montreal Campaign

1760 Jul 2 -

St. Lawrence River, Montreal



The Montreal Campaign, also known as the Fall of Montreal, was a British three-pronged offensive against Montreal which took place from July 2 to 8 September 1760 during the French and Indian War as part of the global Seven Years' War. The campaign, pitted against an outnumbered and outsupplied French army, led to the capitulation and occupation of Montreal, the largest remaining city in French Canada.

More details




CHAPTER   17

Treaty of Paris (1763)

1763 Feb 10 -

Paris, France



The Treaty of Paris, also known as the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763 by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement, after Great Britain and Prussia's victory over France and Spain during the Seven Years' War. The signing of the treaty formally ended conflict between France and Great Britain over control of North America (the Seven Years' War, known as the French and Indian War in the United States), and marked the beginning of an era of British dominance outside Europe. Great Britain and France each returned much of the territory that they had captured during the war, but Great Britain gained much of France's possessions in North America.

More details




CHAPTER   18

Epilogue

1764 Jan 1 -

Quebec City, Canada



The war changed economic, political, governmental, and social relations among the three European powers, their colonies, and the people who inhabited those territories. France and Britain both suffered financially because of the war, with significant long-term consequences. Britain gained control of French Canada and Acadia, colonies containing approximately 80,000 primarily French-speaking Roman Catholic residents. The Quebec Act of 1774 addressed issues brought forth by Roman Catholic French Canadians from the 1763 proclamation, and it transferred the Indian Reserve into the Province of Quebec. The Seven Years' War nearly doubled Great Britain's national debt. The elimination of French power in America meant the disappearance of a strong ally for some Indian tribes.


More details




References



  • Anderson, Fred (2000). Crucible of War: The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-0-375-40642-3.
  • Cave, Alfred A. (2004). The French and Indian War. Westport, Connecticut - London: Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-32168-9.
  • Fowler, William M. (2005). Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754-1763. New York: Walker. ISBN 978-0-8027-1411-4.
  • Jennings, Francis (1988). Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years' War in America. New York: Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-30640-8.
  • Nester, William R. The French and Indian War and the Conquest of New France (2015).



The End

...or is it?

🐰 Stay in wonderland