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1015 - 1066

Harald Hardrada



Harald Sigurdsson, also known as Harald of Norway and given the epithet Hardrada in the sagas, was King of Norway from 1046 to 1066. In addition, he unsuccessfully claimed both the Danish throne until 1064 and the English throne in 1066.

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Harald is born
Young Harald Hardrada ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1015 Jan 2

Harald is born

Ringerike, Norway

Harald was born in Ringerike, Norway in 1015to Åsta Gudbrandsdatter and her second husband Sigurd Syr. Sigurd was a petty king of Ringerike, and among the strongest and wealthiest chieftains in the Uplands. Through his mother Åsta, Harald was the youngest of King Olaf II of Norway / Olaf Haraldsson's (later Saint Olaf) three half-brothers. In his youth, Harald displayed traits of a typical rebel with big ambitions, and admired Olaf as his role model. He thus differed from his two older brothers, who were more similar to their father, down-to-earth and mostly concerned with maintaining the farm.

Battle of Stiklestad
Olav den helliges fall i slaget på Stiklestad ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1030 Jul 29

Battle of Stiklestad

Stiklestad, Norway
Following a revolt in 1028, Harald's brother Olaf was forced into exile until he returned to Norway in early 1030. On hearing news of Olaf's planned return, Harald gathered 600 men from the Uplands to meet Olaf and his men upon their arrival in the east of Norway. After a friendly welcome, Olaf went on to gather an army and eventually fight in the Battle of Stiklestad on 29 July 1030, in which Harald took part on his brother's side. The battle was part of an attempt to restore Olaf to the Norwegian throne, which had been captured by the Danish king Cnut the Great (Canute). The battle resulted in defeat for the brothers at the hands of those Norwegians who were loyal to Cnut, and Olaf was killed while Harald was badly wounded. Harald was nonetheless remarked to have shown considerable military talent during the battle.
Kievan Rus
Harald with the Kievan Rus ©Angus McBride
1031 Mar 1

Kievan Rus

Staraya Ladoga, Russia

After the defeat at the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald managed to escape with the aid of Rögnvald Brusason (later Earl of Orkney) to a remote farm in Eastern Norway. He stayed there for some time to heal his wounds, and thereafter (possibly up to a month later) journeyed north over the mountains to Sweden. A Year after the Battle of Stiklestad, Harald arrived in Kievan Rus' (referred to in the sagas as Garðaríki or Svíþjóð hin mikla). He likely spent at least part of his time in the town of Staraya Ladoga (Aldeigjuborg), arriving there in the first half of 1031. Harald and his men were welcomed by Grand Prince Yaroslav the Wise, whose wife Ingegerd was a distant relative of Harald. Badly in need of military leaders, Yaroslav recognised a military potential in Harald and made him a captain of his forces. Harald's brother Olaf Haraldsson had previously been in exile to Yaroslav following the revolt in 1028, and Morkinskinna says that Yaroslav embraced Harald first and foremost because he was the brother of Olaf. Harald took part in Yaroslav's campaign against the Poles in 1031, and possibly also fought against other 1030s Kievan enemies and rivals such as the Chudes in Estonia, the Byzantines, as well as the Pechenegs and other steppe nomad people.

In Byzantine service
Varangian Guard ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1033 Jan 1

In Byzantine service

Constantinople

After a few years in Kievan Rus', Harald and his force of around 500 men moved on south to Constantinople (Miklagard), the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire where they joined the Varangian Guard. While the Varangian Guard was primarily meant to function as the emperor's bodyguard, Harald was found fighting on "nearly every frontier" of the empire. He first saw action in campaigns against Arab pirates in the Mediterranean Sea, and then in inland towns in Asia Minor / Anatolia that had supported the pirates. By this time, he had according to Snorri Sturluson become the "leader over all the Varangians".

Eastern Campaigns
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1035 Jan 1

Eastern Campaigns

Euphrates River, Iraq

By 1035, the Byzantines had pushed the Arabs out of Asia Minor to the east and southeast, and Harald took part in campaigns that went as far east as the Tigris River and Euphrates River in Mesopotamia, where according to his skald (poet) Þjóðólfr Arnórsson (recounted in the sagas) he participated in the capture of eighty Arab strongholds, a number which historians Sigfus Blöndal and Benedikt Benedikz see no particular reason to question.

Sicily
Varangian Guards in siege battle ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1038 Jan 1

Sicily

Sicily, Italy

In 1038, Harald joined the Byzantines in their expedition to Sicily, in George Maniakes's (the sagas' "Gyrge") attempt to reconquer the island from the Muslim Saracens, who had established the Emirate of Sicily on the island. During the campaign, Harald fought alongside Norman mercenaries such as William Iron Arm.

Battle of Olivento
©David Benzal
1041 Mar 17

Battle of Olivento

Apulia, Italy

In 1041, when the Byzantine expedition to Sicily was over, a Lombard-Norman revolt erupted in southern Italy, and Harald led the Varangian Guard in multiple battles. Harald fought with the Catepan of Italy, Michael Dokeianos with initial success, but the Normans, led by their former ally William Iron Arm, defeated the Byzantines in the Battle of Olivento in March, and in the Battle of Montemaggiore in May.

Harald to the Balkans
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1041 Oct 1

Harald to the Balkans

Ostrovo(Arnissa), Macedonia

After the defeat, Harald and the Varangian Guard were called back to Constantinople, following Maniakes' imprisonment by the emperor and the onset of other more pressing issues. Harald and the Varangians were thereafter sent to fight in the southeastern European frontier as the Balkan peninsula in Bulgaria, where they arrived in late 1041. There, he fought in the army of Emperor Michael IV in the Battle of Ostrovo of the 1041 campaign against the Bulgarian uprising led by Peter Delyan, which later gained Harald the nickname the "Bulgar-burner" (Bolgara brennir) by his skald.

Harald imprisoned
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1041 Dec 1

Harald imprisoned

Constantinople

Harald's favour at the imperial court quickly declined after the death of Michael IV in December 1041, which was followed by conflicts between the new emperor Michael V and the powerful empress Zoe.


During the turmoil, Harald was arrested and imprisoned, but the sources disagree on the grounds. The sources also disagree on how Harald got out of prison, but he may have been helped by someone outside to escape in the midst of the revolt that had begun against the new emperor.

Harthcnut dies
Harthacnut (left) meeting King Magnus the Good at the Göta älv in modern-day Sweden. ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1042 Jun 8

Harthcnut dies

England

Harthacnut, King of England died. Although Harthacnut had promised the English throne to Harald’s nephew Magnus, Edward the Confessor, son of Aethelred the Unready, became King.

Back to Kievan Rus
Harald returns to Kievan Rus ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1042 Oct 1

Back to Kievan Rus

Kiev, Ukraine
After Zoe had been restored to the throne in June 1042 together with Constantine IX, Harald requested to be allowed to return to Norway. Although Zoe refused to allow this, Harald managed to escape into the Bosphorus with two ships and some loyal followers. During his second stay there, he married Elisabeth (referred to in Scandinavian sources as Ellisif), daughter of Yaroslav the Wise and granddaughter of the Swedish king Olof Skötkonung.
Back to Scandinavia
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1045 Oct 1

Back to Scandinavia

Sigtuna, Sweden

Seeking to regain for himself the kingdom lost by his half-brother Olaf Haraldsson, Harald began his journey westwards and arrived in Sigtuna in Sweden, probably at the end of 1045

King of Norway
King Harald of Norway ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1047 Oct 25

King of Norway

Norway

On his return to Norway, Hardrada reached an agreement with Magnus I that they would share the rule of Norway. On 1047, King Magnus died and Harald became sole ruler of Norway.

Invasions of Denmark
Harald raids Denmark ©Erikas Perl
1048 Jan 1

Invasions of Denmark

Denmark

Harald also wanted to re-establish Magnus's rule over Denmark. Similar to his campaigns (then together with Sweyn) against Magnus's rule in Denmark, most of his campaigns against Sweyn consisted of swift and violent raids on the Danish coasts. Although Harald was victorious in most of the engagements, he was never successful in occupying Denmark.

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1062 Aug 9

Battle of Niså

NIssan River, Sweden

As Harald had not been able to conquer Denmark despite his raids, he wanted to win a decisive victory over Sweyn. He eventually set out from Norway with a great army and a fleet of around 300 ships. Sweyn had also prepared for the battle, which had been preassigned a time and place. Sweyn, did not appear at the agreed time, and Harald thus sent home his non-professional soldiers (bóndaherrin), which had made up half of his forces. When the dismissed ships were out of reach, Sweyn's fleet finally appeared, possibly also with 300 ships. The battle resulted in great bloodshed as Harald defeated the Danes (70 Danish ships were reportedly left "empty"), but many ships and men managed to escape, including Sweyn. During the battle, Harald actively shot with his bow, like most others in the early phase of the battle.

Edward the Confessor dies
Harald builds a fleet to invade England ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1066 Jan 1

Edward the Confessor dies

Solund, Norway
Harald claims the English throne and decides to invade England. In March or April 1066, Harald began assembling his fleet at Solund, in the Sognefjord, a process completed by the start of September 1066; it included his flagship, Ormen, or "Serpent".
Harald invades
©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1066 Sep 8

Harald invades

Tynemouth, UK

Harald Hardrada and Tostig Godwinson invaded the north of England bringing around 10–15,000 men, on 240–300 longships. He met Tostig and his 12 ships at Tynemouth. After embarking from Tynemouth, Harald and Tostig probably landed at the River Tees. They then entered Cleveland, and started plundering the coast. They sailed through the Humber estuary and up the River Ouse disembarking at Riccall.

Battle of Fulford
The Battle of Fulford Gate ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1066 Sep 20

Battle of Fulford

Fulford, UK

News of the invasion soon reached the earls Morcar of Northumbria and Edwin of Mercia, and they fought against Harald's invading army two miles (3 km) south of York at the Battle of Fulford on 20 September. The battle was a decisive victory for Harald and Tostig, and led York to surrender to their forces on 24 September.

Death of Harald:  Battle of Stamford Bridge
The Battle of Stamford bridge ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1066 Sep 25

Death of Harald: Battle of Stamford Bridge

Stamford Bridge

Harald and Tostig departed their landing place at Riccall with most of their forces, but left a third of their forces behind. They brought only light armour, as they expected to just meet the citizens of York. Although (according to non-saga sources) the English forces were held up at the bridge for some time by a single gigantic Norwegian, allowing Harald and Tostig to regroup into a shield-wall formation, Harald's army was in the end heavily beaten. Harald was struck in the throat by an arrow and killed early in the battle in a state of berserkergang, having worn no body armour and fought aggressively with both hands around his sword.

Characters



Sweyn II of Denmark

Sweyn II of Denmark

King of Sweden

Yaroslav the Wise

Yaroslav the Wise

Grand Prince of Kiev

Edward the Confessor

Edward the Confessor

King of England

Harold Godwinson

Harold Godwinson

King of England

Tostig Godwinson

Tostig Godwinson

Northumbrian Earl

Michael IV

Michael IV

Byzantine Emperor

Magnus the Good

Magnus the Good

King of Norway

Harald Hardrada

Harald Hardrada

King of Norway

Olaf II of Norway

Olaf II of Norway

King of Norway

References



  • Bibikov, Mikhail (2004). "Byzantine Sources for the History of Balticum and Scandinavia". In Volt, Ivo; Päll, Janika (eds.). Byzanto-Nordica 2004. Tartu, Estonia: Tartu University. ISBN 9949-11-266-4.
  • Moseng, Ole Georg; et al. (1999). Norsk historie: 750–1537 (in Norwegian). I. Aschehoug. ISBN 978-82-518-3739-2.
  • Tjønn, Halvor (2010). Harald Hardråde. Sagakongene (in Norwegian). Saga Bok/Spartacus. ISBN 978-82-430-0558-7.