In the September Massacres, between 1,100 to 1,600 prisoners held in Parisian jails were summarily executed, the vast majority of whom were common criminals. On 22 September the Convention replaced the monarchy with the French First Republic and introduced a new calendar, with 1792 becoming "year One". The next few months were taken up with the trial of Citoyen Louis Capet, formerly Louis XVI. While the Convention was evenly divided on the question of his guilt, members were increasingly influenced by radicals centred in the Jacobin clubs and Paris Commune. On 16 January 1793 he was convicted, and on 21 January, he was executed by guillotine.