War of the First Coalition

Traité de Campo-Formio ©Image Attribution forthcoming. Image belongs to the respective owner(s).
1797 Oct 17


Campoformido, Italy

The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on 17 October 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp von Cobenzl as representatives of the French Republic and the Austrian monarchy, respectively. The treaty followed the armistice of Leoben (18 April 1797), which had been forced on the Habsburgs by Napoleon's victorious campaign in Italy. It ended the War of the First Coalition and left Great Britain fighting alone against revolutionary France.

Key Findings:

  • The French Revolution is secured against foreign threats - French territorial gains: Austrian Netherlands (Belgium), territories left of the Rhine, Savoy, Nice, Haiti, Ionian Islands
  • Expansion of French sphere of influence: Batavian Republic in Netherlands, Daughter republics in Italy & Switzerland, naval supremacy in the mediterranean - Spain becomes an ally of France
  • Territories of the Republic of Venice were divided between the Austria and France.
  • In addition, the states of the Kingdom of Italy formally ceased to owe fealty to the Holy Roman Emperor, finally ending the formal existence of that Kingdom (the Kingdom of Italy), which, as a personal holding of the Emperor, had existed de jure but not de facto since at least the 14th century.

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