Umayyad Caliphate

Dome of the Rock completed
Cross section of the Dome (print from 1887, after the first detailed drawings of the Dome ©Frederick Catherwood
691 Jan 1

Dome of the Rock completed

Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem

The Dome of the Rock's initial construction was undertaken by the Umayyad Caliphate on the orders of Abd al-Malik during the Second Fitna in 691–692 CE, and it has since been situated on top of the site of the Second Jewish Temple (built in c. 516 BCE to replace the destroyed Solomon's Temple), which was destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE.

The Dome of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture. Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces, although its outside appearance was significantly changed during the Ottoman period and again in the modern period, notably with the addition of the gold-plated roof, in 1959–61 and again in 1993.