Thirty Years War: The Swedish Phase
Sweden’s Protestant king, Gustavus Adolphus, decided to get involved in defending the Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire. However, France’s Catholic chief minister and Catholic Cardinal Richelieu were getting nervous about the increased power of the Hapsburgs. He, therefore, aided the Swedish Protestants in their fight against Habsburg Catholicism!
Table of Contents / Timeline
Sweden makes peaceAltmark, Germany
Richelieu's helped negotiate the Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth , freeing Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war.
Siege of MagdeburgMagdeburg, Germany
Swedish troops lands in the Duchy of Pomeranianear Peenemünde, Germany
Securing PomeraniaStettin, Poland
Battle of Frankfurt an der OderFrankfurt an der Oder, German
Sack of MagdeburgMagdeburg, Germany
Battle of BreitenfieldBreitenfeld, Leipzig, Germany
Siege of NurembergNuremberg, Germany
Swedish Invasion of BavariaBavaria, Germany
Battle of Lützennear Lützen, Germany
Arrest and murder of WallensteinCheb,Czechia
Rumours were circulating that Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides. The Eger Bloodbath was the culmination of an internal purge in the army of the Holy Roman Empire. On 25 February 1634, a group of Irish and Scottish officers acting under the approval of Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, assassinated generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein and a group of his companions in the town of Eger (today Cheb, Czech Republic). The assassins were equated to executioners by a royal decree and rewarded with property confiscated from the families of their victims. The purge continued through the persecution of other high-ranking military personnel who were seen as Wallenstein's supporters.
Battle of NördlingenNördlingen, Germany
Peace of PraguePrague, Czechia
The Peace of Prague ended Saxony's participation in the Thirty Years War. The terms would later form the basis of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia. Other German princes subsequently joined the treaty and although the Thirty Years War continued, it is generally agreed Prague ended it as a religious civil war within the Holy Roman Empire. Thereafter, the conflict was largely driven by foreign powers, including Spain, Sweden, and France.
- Dukes, Paul, ed. (1995). Muscovy and Sweden in the Thirty Years' War 1630–1635. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521451390.
- Norrhem, Svante (2019). Mercenary Swedes; French subsidies to Sweden 1631–1796. Translated by Merton, Charlotte. Nordic Academic Press. ISBN 978-91-88661-82-1.
- Roberts, Michael (1958). Gustavus Adolphus: A History of Sweden, 1611–1632. Longmans, Green and C°.
- Åberg, A. (1973). "The Swedish army from Lützen to Narva". In Roberts, M. (ed.). Sweden's Age of Greatness, 1632–1718. St. Martin's Press.
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