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3 min
Thirty Years War: The Danish Phase
1625 - 1629

Thirty Years War: The Danish Phase

Words: nono umasy


In this part of the Thirty Years War, the Protestant Danes were challenged by the Catholic Imperial armies. Their success led to major Catholic victories and put the Catholic Habsburg rulers of Spain and Austria at the height of their power. After this Catholic victory, Ferdinand declared an “Edict of Restitution” which took back lands for the Catholic Church that had previously been overtaken by Protestants. Ferdinand also limited worship in the HRE to only two groups: Catholics and Lutherans.



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1625 Jan 1

Danes get involved

Denmark


Danes get involved
Christian IV of Denmark


After the Bohemian Revolt was suppressed by Ferdinand II, the Danish king, Christian IV, fearing that recent Catholic successes threatened his sovereignty as a Protestant nation, led troops against Ferdinand.

1625 Dec 1

England and United Provinces(Dutch) finance the Danes

England and United Provinces


England and United Provinces(Dutch) finance the Danes


England and the United Provinces gave a subsidy to aid the opponents of the Hapsburgs, and England sent a few thousand soldiers.


1626 Apr 25

Battle of the Dessau Bridge

Dessau, Germany


Battle of the Dessau Bridge
Danish army charging across a bridge, Thirty Years War- by Christian Holm


General Wallenstein defeated Count Mansfeld. Wallenstein had 20,000 men to Mansfeld’s 12,000, although initially Mansfeld was under the impression he had more men. Because of this misconception Mansfeld attacked across the bridge over the Elbe river. He realised his mistake as the Catholic masses were brought to bear. Trapped against the river Mansfeld lost 4,000 dead, wounded, or captured.


1626 Aug 27

Battle of Lutter-am-Bamberg

Lutter am Barenberge, Germany


Battle of Lutter-am-Bamberg


A Catholic League army under Count Tilly defeated the forces of Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter am Barenberge in the Imperial Circle Estate of Lower Saxony. Both armies had 20,000 men. On three occasions the imperial infantry broke through the Danish line only to be repulsed by a cavalry counter-attack. However when the Catholics captured the entire Danish artillery the Danes panicked and retreated towards the town of Stade. The Danish losses were approximately 4,000 dead, 2,000 wounded, and 2,500 prisoners.


1628 Jul 5

Siege of Stralsund

Stralsung, Germany


Siege of Stralsund


The Siege of Stralsund was a siege laid on Stralsund by Albrecht von Wallenstein's Imperial Army during the Thirty Years' War, from May to 4 August 1628. Stralsund was aided by Denmark and Sweden, with considerable Scottish participation. The lifting of the siege ended Wallenstein's series of victories, and contributed to his downfall. The Swedish garrison in Stralsund was the first on German soil in history. The battle marked the de facto entrance of Sweden into the war.

1628 Aug 12

Battle of Wolgast

Wolfgast, Germany


Battle of Wolgast


Danish forces of Christian IV of Denmark-Norway had made landfall on Usedom and the adjacent mainland, and expelled the imperial occupation forces. An Imperial army commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein left besieged Stralsund to confront Christian IV. Ultimately, the Danish forces were defeated. Christian IV and a fraction of his landing force were able to escape by ship.


1629 May 22

Treaty of Lübeck

Lübeck, Germany


Treaty of Lübeck
Wallenstein's camp


In the Treaty of Lübeck Christian IV retained Denmark but had to stop his support for the Protestant German states. This gave the Catholic powers the opportunity to take more Protestant land during the next two years. It restored to Denmark-Norway its pre-war territory at the cost of final disengagement from imperial affairs.

1629 Dec 1

Epilogue

Denmark


Epilogue


Key Findings:

  • Catholics still on top
  • Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution, which ordered the return of Catholic lands that had been taken over by Protestants since the Peace of Augsburg




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References



  • Lockhart, Paul D (2007). Denmark, 1513–1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance monarchy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927121-4.
  • Murdoch, Steve (2000). Britain, Denmark-Norway and the House of Stuart 1603–1660. Tuckwell. ISBN 978-1862321823.


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