Treaty of Lübeck
Thirty Years War: The Danish Phase
In this part of the Thirty Years War, the Protestant Danes were challenged by the Catholic Imperial armies. Their success led to major Catholic victories and put the Catholic Habsburg rulers of Spain and Austria at the height of their power. After this Catholic victory, Ferdinand declared an “Edict of Restitution” which took back lands for the Catholic Church that had previously been overtaken by Protestants. Ferdinand also limited worship in the Holy Roman Empire to only two groups: Catholics and Lutherans.
Danes get involvedDenmark
England and United Provinces(Dutch) finance the DanesEngland and United Provinces
England and the United Provinces gave a subsidy to aid the opponents of the Hapsburgs, and England sent a few thousand soldiers.
Battle of the Dessau BridgeDessau, Germany
General Wallenstein defeated Count Mansfeld. Wallenstein had 20,000 men to Mansfeld’s 12,000, although initially Mansfeld was under the impression he had more men. Because of this misconception Mansfeld attacked across the bridge over the Elbe river. He realised his mistake as the Catholic masses were brought to bear. Trapped against the river Mansfeld lost 4,000 dead, wounded, or captured.
Battle of Lutter-am-BambergLutter am Barenberge, Germany
A Catholic League army under Count Tilly defeated the forces of Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter am Barenberge in the Imperial Circle Estate of Lower Saxony. Both armies had 20,000 men. On three occasions the imperial infantry broke through the Danish line only to be repulsed by a cavalry counter-attack. However when the Catholics captured the entire Danish artillery the Danes panicked and retreated towards the town of Stade. The Danish losses were approximately 4,000 dead, 2,000 wounded, and 2,500 prisoners.
Siege of StralsundStralsung, Germany
Battle of WolgastWolfgast, Germany
Danish forces of Christian IV of Denmark-Norway had made landfall on Usedom and the adjacent mainland, and expelled the imperial occupation forces. An Imperial army commanded by Albrecht von Wallenstein left besieged Stralsund to confront Christian IV. Ultimately, the Danish forces were defeated. Christian IV and a fraction of his landing force were able to escape by ship.
Treaty of LübeckLübeck, Germany
- Catholics still on top
- Ferdinand issued the Edict of Restitution, which ordered the return of Catholic lands that had been taken over by Protestants since the Peace of Augsburg
Key Figures for The Danish Phase
Book Recommenations for The Danish Phase
- Lockhart, Paul D (2007). Denmark, 1513–1660: the rise and decline of a Renaissance monarchy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-927121-4.
- Murdoch, Steve (2000). Britain, Denmark-Norway and the House of Stuart 1603–1660. Tuckwell. ISBN 978-1862321823.