Second Punic War
237 BCE Jan 1 - 219 BCE



The First Punic War between Carthage and Rome ended in 241 BC after 23 years and with immense materiel and human losses on both sides in a Roman victory. In 237 BCE, Hamilcar Barca arrives in southern Spain to expand Carthage's interests there. He makes his base at Gades and founds Acra Leuce.In 221 BCE, Hannibal takes command of Carthage's armies in Spain. In 226 BC the Ebro Treaty was agreed with Rome, specifying the Ebro River as the northern boundary of the Carthaginian sphere of influence. At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate agreement with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. In 219 BC a Carthaginian army under Hannibal besieged Saguntum, and after eight months captured and sacked it. Rome complained to the Carthaginian government, sending an embassy to its senate with peremptory demands. When these were rejected Rome declared war in spring 218 BC.