Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'
© Vassily Maximov

Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus

Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'
Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus' ©Vassily Maximov
1237 Jan 1

Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'

Kiev, Ukraine

The Mongol Empire invaded and conquered Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous southern cities, including the biggest ones Kiev (50,000 inhabitants) and Chernihiv (30,000 inhabitants), with the only major cities escaping destruction being Novgorod and Pskov located on the North.


The campaign was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River in May 1223, which resulted in a Mongol victory over the forces of several Rus' principalities. The Mongols retreated, having gathered their intelligence which was the purpose of the reconnaissance-in-force. A full-scale invasion of Rus' by Batu Khan followed, from 1237 to 1242. The invasion was ended by the Mongol succession process upon the death of Ögedei Khan. All Rus' principalities were forced to submit to Mongol rule and became vassals of the Golden Horde, some of which lasted until 1480.


The invasion, facilitated by the beginning of the breakup of Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, had profound ramifications for the history of Eastern Europe, including the division of the East Slavic people into three separate nations: modern-day Russia, Ukraine and Belarus.

Ask Herodotus

herodotus-image

Do you have a question about this event or anything History related?



HistoryMaps Shop

Heroes of the American Revolution Painting

Explore the rich history of the American Revolution through this captivating painting of the Continental Army. Perfect for history enthusiasts and art collectors, this piece brings to life the bravery and struggles of early American soldiers.

Page last updated: Sun Jan 14 2024

Support HM Project

There are several ways to support the HistoryMaps Project.
New & Updated