Words: Something Something
Orhan Ghazi (اورخان غاز) was the second bey of the Ottoman Beylik from 1323/4 to 1362. He was born in Söğüt, as the son of Osman Gazi and Malhun Hatun. His grandfather was Ertuğrul. In the early stages of his reign, Orhan focused his energies on conquering most of northwestern Anatolia. The majority of these areas were under Byzantine rule and he won his first battle at Pelekanon against the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos. Orhan also occupied the lands of the Karasids of Balıkesir and the Ahis of Ankara.
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According to Ottoman tradition, when Orhan succeeded his father, he proposed to his brother, Alaeddin, that they should share the emerging empire. The latter refused on the grounds that their father had designated Orhan as sole successor, and that the empire should not be divided.
Battle of Pelekanon, Turkey
Nicaea(now Iznik), Turkey
Nicomedia (now Izmit), Turkey
Çimpe Castle, Turkey
Ottomans gained their first permanent stronghold in Europe at Çimpe Castle in 1354. It was granted to the Ottoman Turks by the Byzantine emperor John Kantakouzenos around 1352 for their use during his war against his erstwhile charge and co-emperor John Palaiologos.
Orhan died in 1362, in Bursa, at the age of eighty, after a reign of thirty-six years. He is buried in the türbe (tomb) with his wife and children, called Gümüşlü Kumbet in Bursa. Orhan was the longest living and one of the longest reigning of the future Ottoman Sultans. In his last years he had left most of the powers of state in the hands of his second son Murad and lived a secluded life in Bursa.
- Edward S. Creasy, History of the Ottoman Turks. (Beirut: Khayats, 1961), 13
- Kafadar, Cemal (1995). Between Two Worlds: The Construction of the Ottoman State. p. 16.
- Lowry, Heath (2003). The Nature of the Early Ottoman State. SUNY Press. p. 153.
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