Muslim Conquest of Persia

Battle of Saniyy
Khalid executed a coordinated night attack on Saniyy in the second week of November 633 CE. ©HistoryMaps
633 Nov 11

Battle of Saniyy

Abu Teban, Iraq

The Battle of Saniyy was a strategic engagement between the Muslim Arab forces led by Khalid ibn al-Walid and the Sasanian Empire, supplemented by their Christian Arab allies, during the early Islamic conquests. Following victories at Muzayyah and other locations, Khalid ibn al-Walid targeted Saniyy, aiming to prevent the Sasanian and Christian Arab forces from consolidating.


In response to Muslim advances, Bahman, a Sasanian commander, organized a new army comprising survivors from previous battles, garrison veterans, and new recruits. Despite being less experienced, this force was augmented by Christian Arab tribes, motivated by losses at Ayn al-Tamr and the death of their chief, Aqqa. They sought to reclaim lost territories and liberate captured comrades. Bahman strategically divided his forces, dispatching them to Husaid and Khanafis, while awaiting the readiness of the Christian Arab contingents for a coordinated assault.


Khalid, anticipating the threat of a unified enemy force, preemptively divided his forces to engage the enemy separately, successfully implementing a strategy of divide and conquer. He deployed his troops to Ain-ul-Tamr, organizing them into three corps and planning simultaneous attacks on the dispersed enemy forces. Despite logistical challenges, Khalid's forces achieved victories at Husaid and Khanafis, forcing the remaining enemy to retreat and regroup with the Christian Arabs at Muzayyah.


Subsequently, Khalid executed a coordinated night attack on Saniyy in the second week of November 633 CE, employing a three-pronged assault that overwhelmed the defenders. The battle resulted in significant losses for the Christian Arab forces, including the death of their commander, Rabi'a bin Bujair. Women, children, and youths were spared and taken captive. Following this victory, Khalid swiftly moved to neutralize the remaining forces at Zumail, effectively ending Persian influence in Iraq and securing the region for the Muslims.

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Last Updated: Sun Feb 04 2024